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What is Stace's definition of relativism?
Any ethical position which denies that there is a single moral standard which is equally applicable to all people at all times.
What are the two definitions regarding "standards"?
- What people think is right
- what is right is distinct from what people think
What is Stace's view of the anthropological "science" in support of morality among various societies?
It has a psychological effect, but adds nothing ot the argument for ethical relativism.
Does Stace believe that affirming the commands of God is an adequate foundation for absolute moral values?
According to Stace, what are the three problems w/ ethical relativism?
- It renders meaningless all propositions which attempt to compare these standards with one another
- It isn't possible to compare individuals within the same moral code
- No one person's moral opinion or even a majority view is an adequate standard for morality
What is the definition of the Morality Trap?
The belief you must obey a moral code created by someone else
What are the three different kinds of morality and their definitions?
- personal- act in a way that brings the best consequences to you
- universal- code of conduct that is supposed to bring happiness to everyone that uses it
- absolute-n a set of rules to which an individual is expected to surrender his own happiness (comes from outside the person)
What is the Unselfishness Trap?
the belief that you must put hte happiness of others above your own happiness
According to MacIver (like Browne), morality must be situated where?
in your own values
Name four reasons MacIver is so enthusiastic about the Golden Rule.
- It is the only rule that stands by itself in light of its own reasoning in the face of warring systems
- instead of attacking the will of other people, it offers a new dimension
- it goes deeper to show how morality establishes relationships w/ other people, rather than isolating them
- it weakens those who use moral laws to inflict evil on other people
According to MacIver, what is a glaring weakness of the Golden Rule?
It does not solve ethicalproblems but only offers an approach. It doesn't prescribe our treatment of others but only the spirit in which they should be treated
According to Schaeffer, what is the problem w/ being finite? Who does he quote and what is the quote?
There is no sufficient point of integration in himself. Sartre- no infinite reference point= everything is meaningless and absurd
In regard to morals, if there is an impersonal beginning what are the two consequences?
- morals disappear-morals and ontology (being) are one
- there is no ultiamte fulfillment in the universe
What does Schaeffer mean by his term "moral motions"?
the sense that things are right and wrong
What is the problem w/ Hindu "paneverythingism"?
nobility and cruelties are of equal value; there is no difference between the two
According to Schaeffer, relativism is based on what kind of process? What example doe she use to suggest that this is a relevant mechanism for cultural values and morality?
a statistical process (majority rules)
Schaeffer's discussion concerning the continuity and discontinuity of humankind is crucial in his argument for a "good" God, from which proceeds a moral foundation. What are at least two important results if there is discontinuity?
- man is cruel without God being a bad God
- there is a hope of a solution for this moral problem
According to the text, does Lund believe that even a heinous act is by its very nature intrinsically wrong?
No, because value has no value apart from an evaluator
According to the text, values are contingent upon what?
the existence of a conscious being w/ feelings, concerns, desires and purposes
In addition to the contingency which makes possible values, what is required for there to be moral or immoral behavior?
a second individual w/ the properties of the 1st individual
What is the difference b/t value subjectivism & value objectivism?
- value subjectivism= a contribution of the subject of the experience; not found in the object itself
- value objectivism= value statements do describe the objects to which they refer
When does a personal value become an aspect of morality?
when you apply your preferences as a standard to which others ought to follow
How is Utilitarianism defined?
every morally relevant action, whether of a private individual or a governing body, ought to be such as to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Utilitarianism is what kind of theory?
How is Kant's deontological theory defined? Why is this theory opposite to Utilitarianism?
It is a rejection of consequentialist theory; the only thing that is good w/o qualification is a good will. People have intrinsic value
What are some of the glaring weaknesses of Utilitarianism?
B/c it puts emphasis on the greatest good for the greatest number; the happiness/liberty of the minority is sacrificed for the majority- cite: slavery
According to Lund, what is the summation of seeking to synthesize Utilitarianism and Deontological theory?
Generally, decisions of morality should be based on consequences w/ the overriding principle being the value/moral rights of others
While the relativist position is said to be strong, what are two problems w/ accepting a society's moral norms?
- societies have engaged in certain practices that were morally wrong (according to who is the question)
- by grounding morality in preference, there is no higher court of appeal
What are some of the issues raised regarding the case that people should be moral?
- by being moral people get something else they value (religion= heaven, etc.)
- we should be moral out of love for God, not personal gain
- morality doesn't necessarily mean it is in need of religion as a foundation
- it enables us and other to be treated well
According to Lund, is religion essential for the establishment of a foundation for morality?
What is a substitute for God if morality has an alternative foundation?
other people (humanism)
What is the definition of Ethics
the field of study that deals w/ discovering what is morally right & wrong
What is the core understanding of a Naturalistic view of Ethics?
a rejection of the possibility of having an absolute standard by which to judge right & wrong
What is the position of Utilitarianism?
an action is not good in and of itself; it is good only if there are beneficial results from the act. Long range consequences determine what is right & wrong
Name two proponents of Utilitarianism & what is the difference in their views
- Jeremy Bentham- all pleasures are equal
- John Stuart Mill- intellectual & sophisticated pleasures are ranked higher than fleshly pleasures
What is ethical relativism & who is a proponent of it?
each person must determine their own ethics of right & wrong. Jean-Paul Sartre
What is conventionalism & what other name does it go by?
cultural relativism. Right and wrong are determined by the culture in which a person lives.
What is the definition of a theistic view of ethics?
an ethic of absolute truth that flows from a morally perfect God, who is the foundation of ethics
What is absolutism & who is a proponent of it?
St. Augustine. There are absolute laws that should never be broken in any situation. 2 books: On Lying & Against Lying
What is conflicting absolutism & what verses seem to support this position?
- argues that in conflicting situations the application of absolute law should lead to the choice of "the lesser of 2 evil"
- Matthew 5:22
What is graded absolutism & what verses seem to support this position?
- argues that in conflicting situations the application of absolute law should lead to the choice of choosing the greater good
- Ezra 10; Rahab's life
How does Hardy compare the ethical views w/ the difference theories of truth?
- Utilitarianism= pragmatism
- ethical relativism= subjective theory of truth
- conventionalism/cultural relativism= coherence view of truth
- none of these affirm the absolute theory of truth
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