PSYC 355: Chapter 17 Part 2
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PSYC 355: Chapter 17 Part 2
Chapter 17: Learning and Memory Part 2
What is delayed non-matching-to-sample task? (object recognition memory)
a test where the subject must respond to the unfamiliar stimulus of a pair. e.g. the monkey has to identify which of two objects was NOT seen previously
What is a cognitive map?
A mental represntation of a spatial relationship
What is latent learning?
learning that has taken place but has not yet been demonstrated by performance
what is a place cell?
a neuron in the hippocampus that fires when the animal is in a particular location
what is a grid cell?
a entorhinal neuron that fires when an animal crosses intersection points of an abstract grid map of the local environment. e.g. the innate system of latitude and longitude
What is a border cell?
a entorhinal neuron that fires when the animal arrives at the perimeter of the local spatial cognitive map.
What is neuroplasticity?
the ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment.
What is cell assembly?
a large group of cells that tend to be active at the sametime because they have been activated in simultaneously in the past.
What is a Hebbian synapse?
a synapse that is strengthened when it successfully drives the post synaptic cell
What is a standard condition (SC)?
the usual environment for lab rodents, with a few animals in a cage and food and water.
Whats the impoverished condition for rats?
lab rodents housed singly in a small cage without complex stimuli
What is the enriched condition for rats?
a condition in which lab rodents are housed with other rats and lots of stimulus objects
What is tetanus?
an intense volley of action potentials
What is long term potentiation (LTP)?
a stable increase in the effectiveness of synapses following strong stimulation
What is the hippocampus?
a medial temporal lobe structure important in learning and memory
What is the dentate gyrus?
a strip of gray matter in the hippocampal formation
What is the subiculum?
adjacent to the hippocampus, contributes to hippocampal formation
What is an NDMA receptor?
a glutamate receptor. binds the NDMA agonist. ligand and voltage gated.
Whats an AMPA receptor?
glutamate receptor, binds the glutamate agonist AMPA
What is protein kinase?
an enzyme that adds phosphate groups to protein molecules.
What is CREB (cAMP responsive element binding protein)?
a protein activated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) that now binds to the promotor region of genes involved in neural plasticity.
What is a retrograde messenger?
transmitter that is released by the postsynaptic region, travels back across the synapse and alters the functioning of the presynaptic neuron
What is a conditional knockout?
a gene that can be selectively deactivated in adulthood in specific tissues
What are nootropics?
a class of drugs enhancing cognitive function