social psychology

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BrendaKSmith
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147505
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social psychology
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2012-04-16 13:29:21
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social psychology culture
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psyc chp 15
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  1. "Psychology In Action" Study of the causes, types, and consequences of human interaction
    SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
  2. Belief that one's own country or culture is superior to all other countries and cultures
    ETHNOCENTRISM
  3. Placing one's won goals above those of the group
    INDIVIDUALISM
  4. Placing group goals above individual goals
    COLLECTIVISM
  5. The process of forming an opinion about another person
    IMPRESSION FORMATION
  6. Set of beliefs about members of a particular group
    STEREOTYPE
  7. Phenomenon whereby our expectations elicit behaviors in others that confirm those expectations
    SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY
  8. Bringing preconceived ideas sterotypes to every situation
    ASPECTS OF PERCEIVER - IMPRESSION FORMATION
  9. Features that influence impression formation

    1. APPEARANCE: Attractive people have positive characteristics (witty, intelligent, pleasing)
    2. SPEECH: Straightforward and clear speech is more appealing than speech that contains numerous qualifiers and hesitations, such as "like, maybe, kinda, I guess, and you know
  10. An individuals decision to share personal information
    SELF - DISLCOSURE
  11. People's mannerisms and nonverbal communication influence our impressions
    NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
  12. Information that is available to you prior to 'actually meeting that person may influence our imperssion
    PRIOR INFORMATION
  13. Process of assigning causes to events and begaviors

    Internal causes: personality traits
    External causes: situational factors such as stressors
    ATTRIBUTION
  14. Refers to the extent to which a person's responses vary from situation to situation. The greater the variability the higher the distinctiveness.
    DISTINCTIVENESS
  15. Our "confidence" in makeng attributions regarding internal or external causes is greatest when our behaviors are consistent
    CONSISTENCY
  16. Reactions of other people to the external object or behavior in question.

    HIGH distinctiveness and HIGH consensus lead to an external attribution
    LOW distinctiveness and LOW consensus lead to an internal attribution
    CONSENSUS
  17. When we are NOT objective we MIGHT think when we make attributions about the causes of behaviors, events, and situations. Various biases can influence our attributions
    ATTRIBUTIONAL BIASES
  18. Tendency to attribute behaviors to internal causes
    FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR
  19. Any behavior observed by others that can have two attributions; the attributions of the person who performed the behavior (actor and the attribution of someone who witnessed the behavior (perceiver)
    ACTOR-PERCEIVER BIAS
  20. Tendency to make internal attributions when we are successful and external attributions when we fail
    SELF-SERVING BIAS
  21. Any physical/psychological behavior that is performed with the intent of doing harm
    AGGRESSION
  22. Aggressive behavior that is performed with the specific intent of harming another person
    HOSTILE AGGRESSION
  23. Evaluative judgments about objects, people, and thoughts that include affective knowledge, and behavioral components
    ATTITUDES
  24. Affect=emotional i.e. fun
    Cognition=knowledge about the object
    Behavior=promt that makes us DO or SAY something
    COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES: AFFECT, COGNITION, BEHAVIOR
  25. Protects us from threats to the self or ego
    EGO DEFENSE - FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES
  26. Maximize reinforcements and minimize punishments from the environment
    ADJUSTMENT - FUNCTIONS OF DEFENSE
  27. Bring order and meaning to one's world
    KNOWLEDGE
  28. Questionaire that requires individuals to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement with a set of statements

    1-5 = Strongly agree through Strongly disagree
    MEASURING ATTITUDES - LIKERT SCALES
  29. Actions speak louder than words
    MEASURING ATTITUDES - BEHAVIORAL MEASURES
  30. Classical and operant conditioning. Behaviors that result in reinforcement produce positive attitudes, punishment produces negative attitudes
    LEARNING - ATTITUDE FORMATION
  31. Aversive state produced when an individual has two incompatible thoughts or cognitions simultaneously
    COGNITIVE DISSONANCE - ATTITUDE FORMATION
  32. Behaviors and thoughts are compatible
    COGNITIVE CONSONANCE - ATTITUDE FORMATION
  33. The extent to which we lide/dislike other people
    ATTRACTION - INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
  34. Positively related to the formation of friendships

    i.e. co-wokers become friends
    PROXIMITY - INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
  35. We are attracted to people who arouse positive feeling in us, we avoid individuals who arouse negative feelings. In addition, emotional state, the nature of our social interaction is important ingredient in creating afffect
    AFFECT/EMOTIONS - INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
  36. Positive affects such as laughing, smiling make us feel good and are positive reinforcers
    REINFORCEMENT - INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
  37. We are also attracted to and make friends with people who are similar to us
    SIMILARITY - INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
  38. Form of interpersonal attraction that is governed by an implicit set of rules.
    FREINDSHIP
  39. Influences the formation of friendships. We are more likely to form friendships with people who are willing to disclose information about themselves
    SELF-DISCLOSER - FRIENDSHIP
  40. Not a general definition but recognized in two forms:

    1. Passionate Love: transitory form of love that involves strong emotional reactions, sexual desires, and fantasies
    2. Companionate Love: Long-lasting form of love that involves commitment
  41. LOVE
  42. Stresses the costs and rewards involved are the foundation of abusive relationships
    INTERDEPENDENCE THEORY
  43. CL: General outcome expected from a particular relationship
    COMPARISON LEVEL
  44. Behavior that benefits society or helps others
    PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR - HELPING OTHERS
  45. Most popular: Helping behavior performjed voluntarily with no anticipation of reward
    ALTRUISM - PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
  46. Tendency for a group of bystanders to be less likely than an individual to provide assistance to a person in trouble.
    BYSTANDER EFFECT - SITUATIONAL/PERSONAL INFLUENCES ON HELPING BEHAVIORS
  47. Any physical/psychological behavior that is performed with the intent of doing harm
    AGGRESSION
  48. Aggresive behavior that is performed with the specific intent of harming another person
    HOSTILE AGGRESSION - AGGRESION
  49. Aggersion that causes harm in the process of achieving another goal.
    INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION - AGGRESSION
  50. Being blocked from attaining a goal
    FRUSTRATION
  51. The hypothesis that aggression is likely to occur when a person is frustrated
    FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS - FRUSTRATION
  52. Use of social influence to cause people to change attitudes or behavior
    PERSUASION
  53. Source of the persuasive message may alter our attitudes/behavior
    SOURCE FACTORS - FACTOR OF PERSUASION
  54. The Greater the perceived expertise of the source of a message, the more persuasive
    EXPERTISE - FACTOR OF PERSUASION
  55. The more attractive the source, the more "Effective" the message

    i.e. Sex sells: Ads such as Calvin Klein
    ATRACTIVENESS - FACTOR OF PERSUASION
  56. People must trust the source of the message
    TRUSTWORTHINESS - FACTOR OF PERSUASION
  57. Occurs when the message and its source become detached, messages from sources low in expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness may increase in effectiveness
    SLEEPER EFECT
  58. Features of the message that can influence persuasion
    MASSAGE FACTORS
  59. You must "pay" attention, Numerous procedures designed to attract attention
    ATTENTION - MESSAGE FACTOR
  60. Messages designed to change our attitudes and therby cause us to reach a particular conclusion

    i.e. - Sierra Mist advertisement
    DRAWING CONCLUSIONS - MESSGE FACTORS
  61. For a message to be persuasive: it should not differ drastically from the attitudes of the audience
    MESSGE ACCEPTANCE - MESSAGE FACTOR
  62. The tendency to react in the opposite direction to a persuasive message when compliance might place limits on personl freedom
    REACTANCE - MESSAGE FACTOR
  63. A persuasive message that can arouse our "unconscious" motives
    UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVATION - MESSAGE FACTOR
  64. Below the level of conscious awareness

    i.e. - popcorn & soda @ the movie theaters
    SUBLIMINAL - MESSGE FACTOR
  65. Primacy = items presented first or last (recency effect) are remembered best
    PRIMACY AND RECENCY EFFECTS - MESSAGE FACTOR
  66. Persuasive messages are presented through a variety of channels-printed words, spoken words, pictures, movies, and videos
    CHANNEL FACTORS - MESSAGE FACTOR
  67. The knowledge and past experiences of the receiver of a persuasive message are important
    AUDIENCE FACTORS - MESSAGE FACTOR
  68. Goal is to determine which cognitive prosesses take place when persuasion is effective
    COGNITIVE APPROACH - MESSAGE FACTOR
  69. Initiating or changing a behavior in response to a direct command of an authority
    OBEDIENCE
  70. Commands to change behavior are clear, and authority issuing the commands is obvious
    CONFORMITY & COMPLIANCE
  71. Initiating or changing a behavior in response to indirect social pressures
    CONFORMITY
  72. Finding that groups make riskier decisions than individuals
    RISKY-SHIFT PHEONOMENON
  73. Phenomenon in which group decision-making enhances or amplifies the original opinions of the group's members
    GROUP POLARIZATION
  74. Initiating or changing a behavior in response to a request
    COMPLIANCE
  75. Phenomenon in which a person who has agreed to a small request is more likely to comply with a subsequent larger request
    FOOT-IN-THE DOOR EFFECT
  76. Tactic for increasing compliance that involves doing something for others to create a feeling of obligation on their part
    RECIPROCITY
  77. An increase in performance that occures when other people are present
    SOCIAL FACILITATION
  78. Tendency to exert less effort when working on a group task that does not involve evaluation of individual participants
    SOCIAL LOAFING
  79. Others may mean audiences who are observing or those who are also participating = coactors
    AUDIENCES/COACTORS
  80. Other people who are present and are engaging in the same behaviors as an individual at the same time
    COACTORS - AUDIENCES/COACTORS
  81. Phneomenon isn which the presence of a group results in a loss of personal identity and decrease in responsibility
    DEINDIVIDUATION - AUDIENCES/COACTORS
  82. Group interaction may generate riskier decisions or strengthen preexisting attitudes
    GROUP INTERACTIONS AND GROUP DECISIONS
  83. Group will need a leader to function effectively
    GROUP FORMATION/EFFECTIVENESS
  84. Business of the group is of primary importance to that individual
    TASK-ORIENTED LEADER
  85. Free expression of ideas by members of a group to solve a problem
    BRAINSTORMING
  86. Tendency to make decisions intended primarily to promote the harmony of the group
    GROUPTHINK
  87. Most people are members of social categories of various types and such membership can determine how people feel and act towards others
    PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION
  88. Judging a person on the basis of stereotypes about the group to which the person belongs
    PREJUDICE
  89. Behaviors that adversely affect members of a particular group
    DISCRIMINATION
  90. Prejudice frequently justifies social standing or maintains self-esteem

    members of the "in-group" share common values, goals, and beliefs, whereas, members of the "outgroup" are seen as different from members of the "in-group"
    SOCIAL FUNCTION
  91. Predudice can "satisfy" one's emotional need for "status", and increase the feeling of insecurity
    EMOTIONAL FUNCTION
  92. 1. Parties in both groups must be of equal status
    2. Contact is more effective in breaking down sterotypes and reducing prejudices when both groups are untied in pursuit of a "common" goal
    3. cooperation is successful in achieving a goal generally leads to reduced prejudice/discrimination
    REDUCE PREJUDICE

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