MCAT Bio 1.2

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MCAT Bio 1.2
2012-08-02 15:31:54

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  1. Tissue types
    • Epithelial
    • Nervous
    • Connective
    • Muscle
  2. Tissue Organization
    Organ systems > Organs > Tissues > Cells
  3. Communication characteristics of the endocrine system
    Slow, general, long-lasting
  4. Communication characteristics of the nervous system
    Fast, specific, short-lived
  5. Communication characteristics of the paracrine system
    Local mediator hormones only
  6. Diploid number
    Having a pair of each type of chromosome, so that the basic chromosome number is doubled. 46 in humans.
  7. Haploid number
    The haploid number is the number of chromosomes in a gamete of an individual. This is distinct from the monoploid number (x), which is the number of unique chromosomes in a single complete set. Gametes (sperm, and ova) are haploid cells.
  8. Mitosis
  9. Mitosis yields:
    Two genetically identical, diploid daughter cells.
  10. Meiosis
  11. Meiosis yields:
    Four genetically distinct, haploid daughter cells.
  12. Lipid definition
    Any biomolecule soluble in non-polar solvents and insoluble in polar solvents.
  13. Fatty acid structure
  14. Triacylglycerol (triglyceride) structure
  15. Description of basic steroid structure
    All are four-ringed structures.
  16. Definition of amphipathic
    An amphipathic substance is one that is polar at one end of the molecule (hydrophilic) and nonpolar (hydrophobic) at the other.
  17. Essential vs Non-Essential
    Essential means that your body cannot synthesize it and therefor must get it from its environment- sun, food, etc.
  18. 6 things responsible for the tertiary structure of proteins
    • Disulfide bonds (covalent)
    • Ionic bonds (salt bridge)
    • Hydrophobic interactions
    • Hydroden bonding
    • Proline turns
    • Van der Waals' forces
  19. Determines the protein folding structure
    1˚ structure (amino acid sequence)
  20. Different protein denaturing agents and what they affect
    • Acid- electrostatic bonds
    • Heat- all forces
    • Urea- hydrogen bonds
    • Mercaptoethanol- disulfide bonds

    To refold simply remove the denaturing agent
  21. Between which parts of how many AAs are the hydrogen bonds forming an alpha helix?
    Between the CO group of an AA and the NH group of the AA four (4) residues ahead of it; the helix is right-handed.
  22. D-Fructose
  23. D-Glucose
  24. Digestible to humans α vs β
    • α - animals
    • β - bacteria
  25. Three components of nucleotides
    • 1) Nitrogenous Base
    • 2) 5-C sugar
    • 3) Phosphate Group

    Hydroxyl group always at 3' carbon. base at 1' carbon. phosphate at 5' carbon.
  26. Examples of Nucleotides
    NADH, ATP, DNA, RNA, etc.
  27. Vitamins
    Organic compoundmade in plants and animals vulnerable to heat.
  28. Examples of Vitamins
    • Riboflavin
    • Thiamine
    • Cobalamin
  29. Minerals
    • Inorganic compounds (often metals).
    • Found in soil and water not vulnerable to heat.
  30. -tase vs. -ase?
    • -ase = enzyme
    • -tase = ATP-requiring enzyme
  31. Two important classifications of vitamins
    • Water-soluble
    • Fat-soluble
  32. Induced fit theory
    Theory of enzyme specificity. substrate plays role in final shape of enzyme and that enzyme is partially flexible.
  33. Lock and key theory
    Only the correct key will activate the lock. very specific.
  34. Coenzyme
    Non-protein species NOT permanently attached to the enzyme but required by the enzyme to function.
  35. Prosthetic group
    Non-protein species permanently attached to the enzyme and required by the enzyme to function.