Communication characteristics of the endocrine system
Slow, general, long-lasting
Communication characteristics of the nervous system
Fast, specific, short-lived
Communication characteristics of the paracrine system
Local mediator hormones only
Having a pair of each type of chromosome, so that the basic chromosome number is doubled. 46 in humans.
The haploid number is the number of chromosomes in a gamete of an individual. This is distinct from the monoploid number (x), which is the number of unique chromosomes in a single complete set. Gametes (sperm, and ova) are haploid cells.
Two genetically identical, diploid daughter cells.
Four genetically distinct, haploid daughter cells.
Any biomolecule soluble in non-polar solvents and insoluble in polar solvents.
Fatty acid structure
Triacylglycerol (triglyceride) structure
Description of basic steroid structure
All are four-ringed structures.
Definition of amphipathic
An amphipathic substance is one that is polar at one end of the molecule (hydrophilic) and nonpolar (hydrophobic) at the other.
Essential vs Non-Essential
Essential means that your body cannot synthesize it and therefor must get it from its environment- sun, food, etc.
6 things responsible for the tertiary structure of proteins
Disulfide bonds (covalent)
Ionic bonds (salt bridge)
Van der Waals' forces
Determines the protein folding structure
1˚ structure (amino acid sequence)
Different protein denaturing agents and what they affect
Acid- electrostatic bonds
Heat- all forces
Urea- hydrogen bonds
Mercaptoethanol- disulfide bonds
To refold simply remove the denaturing agent
Between which parts of how many AAs are the hydrogen bonds forming an alpha helix?
Between the CO group of an AA and the NH group of the AA four (4) residues ahead of it; the helix is right-handed.
Digestible to humans α vs β
α - animals
β - bacteria
Three components of nucleotides
1) Nitrogenous Base
2) 5-C sugar
3) Phosphate Group
Hydroxyl group always at 3' carbon. base at 1' carbon. phosphate at 5' carbon.
Examples of Nucleotides
NADH, ATP, DNA, RNA, etc.
Organic compoundmade in plants and animals vulnerable to heat.
Examples of Vitamins
Inorganic compounds (often metals).
Found in soil and water not vulnerable to heat.
-tase vs. -ase?
-ase = enzyme
-tase = ATP-requiring enzyme
Two important classifications of vitamins
Induced fit theory
Theory of enzyme specificity. substrate plays role in final shape of enzyme and that enzyme is partially flexible.
Lock and key theory
Only the correct key will activate the lock. very specific.
Non-protein species NOT permanently attached to the enzyme but required by the enzyme to function.
Non-protein species permanently attached to the enzyme and required by the enzyme to function.