Peds test # 2 - Muscles

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  1. effects of immobilization on skeletal system (3)
    bone demineralization, negative calcium balance, contractures of joing
  2. decreased metabolic rate, negative nitrogen balance, hypercalcemia, decreased stress hormones
    effects of immobilization on metabolism
  3. S/S of hypercalcemia
    N/V, polydipsia, polyuria, lethargy
  4. Effects of immobility on cardiovascular system (5)
    Decreased efficiency of orthostatic neruovascular reflexes; diminished vasopressor mechanism; altered distrubtion of BV; venous stasis; dependent edema
  5. 5 effects of immobility on respiratory system
    decreased need for O2; diminished vital capacity; poor abdominal tone/distention; mechanical restriction; loss of respiratory muscle strength
  6. 4 effects of immobility on GI system
    Distention; anorexia; difficulty feeding; gravitation effects on feces
  7. Effects of immobility on integumentary system (2)
    decreased circulaiton and pressure; prone to pressure sores
  8. effects of immobility on urinary system (4)
    alteration of gravitational force; impaired ureteral peristalsis; difficulty voiding in supine position; urinary retention
  9. most frequently broken bone in child
  10. the weakest point of long bones is the what?
    cartilage growth plate; epiphyseal plate
  11. Triad of injuries assoiciated with motor vehicle injuries
    Femur fracture, truncal injury, contralateral head injury
  12. when fractured bone protruded through the skin
    compound/open fracture
  13. bone fragments have damaged other organs/tissues
    complicated fracture
  14. small fragments of bone are broken from the fractured shaft and lie around surrounding tissue
    comminuted fracture
  15. compressed side of bone bends, but tension side of bone breaks, causing incomplete fracture
    Greenstick fracture
  16. The 5 ps for assessment of fractures
    Pain and point of tenderness; pulse distal to site; pallor; parestheisa, sensation distal to fracture; paralysis
  17. What is the typical bone healing for the following?

    Neonatal period, early childhood, late childhood, adolescence
    2 -3 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 to 8 weeks, 8 to 12 weeks
  18. forward force produced by attaching weight to distal bone fragment
  19. backward force provided by body weight
  20. provided by patient's contact with bed
    frictional force
  21. applied to body part by the hand placed distally to fracture
    manual traction
  22. pulling mechanisms are attached to the skin with adhesive material/elastic bandage
    skin traction
  23. applied directly to skeletal structure by pin, wire, or tons inserted into or through the diameter of the bone distal to the fracture
    skeletal traction
  24. inserted through burr holes in skull with weights attached to hyperextended neck
    cervical traction
  25. process of separating opposing bone to encourage regeneration of new bone in created space; can be used when limbs are unequal in length and new bone is needed to elongate shorter limb
  26. Permits limb lengthening by manual distraction; allows earlier mobilization and hospital discharge
    ilizarox external fixator
  27. causes include tight dressing for casts, hemorrhage, trauma, burns, surgery
    compartment syndrome
  28. ischemic muscular atrophy
    volkmann contracture
  29. when fat droplets from the marrow are transferred to general circulation and transported to lungs/brain
    fat embolism
  30. occurs when force of stress on ligament is sufficient to displace normal position of opposing bone ends or bone ends to its socket
  31. trauma to a joint from ligament partially or completely torn/stretched by force
  32. microscopic tear to musculotendinous unit; swollen, painful to touch
  33. S/S include sharp, persistent, progressive pain or deep dull ache over bone
    stress fracture
  34. caused by sodium depletion; usually leg cramps; treat with rest/replace fluids
    heat cramps
  35. collapse due to excessive fluid loss; may be disoriented
    heat exhaustion
  36. failure of normal thermoregulation mechanisms; rapid onset of headache, weakness, temp greater thatn 104
    heat stroke
  37. female athlete triad
    amenorrhea, osteoporosis, eating disorders
  38. positive olrtolani test; shortening of limb on affected side; assymmetric thigh/gluteal folds; broadening of perineum
    S/S of developmental dysplasia of hip
  39. DDH in older infant and child (4)
    trendelenburg sign; lordosis; waddling gate; greater trochangter is prominent
  40. types of congenital clubfoot:
    inversion; eversion; plantar flexio with toes loer than heel; dorsiflexion with toes higher than heel
    talipes varus, talipes valgus, talipes equinus, talipes calcaneus
  41. most common congenital foot deformity; often results from abnormal position in uterus; "pigeon-toed gait"
    metatarsus adductus
  42. "wry neck"; congenital/acquired ilmited neck motion with neck flexed to affected side; initally firm nontender mass that turns into fibrous tissue
  43. Self-limited, idopathic, 3 to 12 years of age, avascualr necrosis for femoral head
    Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
  44. hip soreness, stiffness or ache, pain in hip, groin, or knee; usually associated with joint dysfunction and limited ROM
    S/S of Legg Calve Perthes Disease
  45. most common spinal deformity; may be congenital or develop during childhood
  46. log roll to prevent spinal motion; molded plastic jacket to provide external stabilization (scoliosis)
    Harrington rods
  47. use of wires and rods to straighten spine for scoliosis
  48. wheen a preexisting infectino spreads to bone
    hematogenous osteomyelitis
  49. characterized by excessive fragility and bone defects, blue sclera, hearing loss, and discolored teeth
    Osteogenesis Imperfects (OI)
  50. peaks at ages 1 to 3 and ages 8 to 10
    Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
  51. Stiffness, swelling, loss of mobility in affected joins, warm to touch, tender to touch, symptoms increase with stressors, growth retardation are S/S of what
  52. inflammation of iris/ciliary body; unique to JRA
  53. first line of treatment for JRA; immediate analgesia but delayed antiinflammatory effect
  54. slower acting antireheumatic drugs; side effects include liver disease, bone marrow suppression, GI disturbances, teratogenisis
  55. characterized by early onset and impaired movement/posture with abnormal muscle tone/lack of coordination
    Cerebral Palsy (CP)
  56. type of CP that includes hpertonicity, lack of fine/gross motor skills
  57. type of CP that includes abnormal involuntary movements
  58. type of CP that includes wide-based gaiin, uncoordinated movement of upper body
  59. type of CP that includes combination of spasticity and athetosis
  60. poor head control after 3 months of age; stiff/rigid limbs; arching back, pushing away; floppy tone; unable to sit w/o support @ 8 months; clenched fists after 3 months
    Possible s/s of CP
  61. excessive irritability, no smiling @ 3 months, feeding difficulties
    possible behavioral signs of CP
  62. skeletal muscle relaxants for CP; decreases spasticity
    Dantrium, Robaxin
  63. most severe/common muscular dystrophy in childhood; X linked; males
    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)
  64. waddling gait, frequent falls, gower sign, lordosis, enlarge muscles, profound muscular atrophy, mental deficiency
    S/S of DMD
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Peds test # 2 - Muscles
2012-04-14 17:33:50

Peds test # 2 - muscles
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