Bio Chapter 8 terms

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ndumas2
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147520
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Bio Chapter 8 terms
Updated:
2012-04-14 00:20:22
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Chapter 8 terms
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  1. a molecule composed of the sugar ribose, the base adenine, and two phosphate groups; a component of ATP.
    adenosine diphosphate
  2. a molecule composed of the sugar ribose, the base adenine, and three phosphate groups; the major energy carrier in cells. The last two phosphate groups are attached by "high-energy" bonds.
    adenosine triphosphate
  3. using oxygen.
    aerobic
  4. a type of fermentation in which pyruvate is converted to ethanol (a type of alcohol) and carbon dioxide, using hydrogen ions and electrons from NADH; the primary function of alcoholic fermentation is to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue under anaerobic onditions.
    alcoholic fermentation
  5. not using oxygen.
    anaerobic
  6. the oxygen-requiring reactions, occurring in mitochondria, that break down the end products of glycolysis into carbon dioxide and water while capturing large amounts of energy as ATP.
    cellular respiration
  7. a process of ATP generation in chloroplasts and mitochondria. The movement of electrons down an electron transport system is used to pump hydrogen ions across a membrane, thereby building up a concentration gradient of hydrogen ions; the hydrogen ions diffuse back across the membrane through the pores of ATP-synthesizing enzymes; the energy of their movement down their concentration gradient drives ATP synthesis.
    chemiosmosis
  8. a cyclic series of reactions, occurring in the matrix of mitochondria, in which the acetyl groups from the pyruvic acids produced by glycolysis are broken down to accompanied by the formation of ATP and electron carriers; also called the Krebs cycle.
    citric acid cycle
  9. a series of electron carrier molecules, found in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and the inner membrane of mitochondria, that extract energy from electrons and generate ATP or other energetic molecules.
    electron transport chain (ETC)
  10. anaerobic reactions that convert the pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis into lactic acid or alcohol and CO2, using hydrogen ions and electrons from NADH; the primary function of fermentation is to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue under anaerobic conditions.
    fermentation
  11. reactions, carried out in the cytoplasm, that break down glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid, producing two ATP molecules; does not require oxygen but can proceed when oxygen is present.
    glycolysis
  12. the fluid-filled space between the inner and outer membranes of a mitochondrion.
    intermembrane space
  13. a cyclic series of reactions, occurring in the matrix of mitochondria, in which the acetyl groups from the pyruvic acids produced by glycolysis are broken down to accompanied by the formation of ATP and electron carriers; also called the citric acid cycle.
    Krebs cycle
  14. anaerobic reactions that convert the pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis into lactic acid, using hydrogen ions and electrons from NADH; the primary function of lactic acid fermentation is to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue under anaerobic conditions.
    lactic acid fermentation
  15. the fluid contained within the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
    matrix
  16. an organelle, bounded by two membranes, that is the site of the reactions of aerobic metabolism.
    mitochondrion

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