Ch10_Medical_Terminology_PART2_Nervous_System_Pathology

Card Set Information

Author:
havenwood
ID:
147566
Filename:
Ch10_Medical_Terminology_PART2_Nervous_System_Pathology
Updated:
2012-04-16 13:11:51
Tags:
Medical Terminology Health Professionals 6e JCCC AAC130 Nervous System Pathology
Folders:

Description:
Ch10 Medical Terminology - PART 2 - Nervous System - Pathology
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user havenwood on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Cephalgia (headache)
    Pain in the head
  2. Migraine Headache
    • 1. Can be preceded by a warning aura
    • 2. Characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head
    • 3. Can be proceeded by a warning aura
    • 4. Primarily affect women
    • 5. Accompanied by :
    • ......a. Nausea
    • .....b. Vomiting
    • .....c. Sensitivity to light &/or sound
  3. Warning Aura
    Sensation perceived by the patient that precedes a migraine
  4. Cluster Headache
    1. Intensely painful headaches that affect one side of the head

    2. May be associated with tearing of the eyes & nasal congestion

    3. Affect primarily men

    4. Named for their repeated occurance in groups or clusters.
  5. Encephalocele (craniocele)
    Congenital herniation of brain tissue

    Note: Contrast with meningiocele which is herniation of meninges thru defect in the skull or spinal column
  6. Congenital
    Means present at birth
  7. Herniation
    Protrusion of a structure from its normal position
  8. Meningiocele
    Congenital herniation of the meninges thru a defect in the skull or spinal column.


    Note: Contrast with encephalocele
  9. Hydrocephalus
    1. Condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain.

    2. Can occur at birth or develop later on in life from obstructions related to meningitis, brain tumors, or other causes.
  10. Meningitis
    1. Inflammation of the meninges of the brain & spinal cord which can be fatal

    2. Is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection

    • 3. Characterized by:
    • .....a. Fever
    • .....b. Vomiting
    • .....c. Intense headache
    • .....d. Stiff neck

    Note: Contrast with encephalitis
    which is inflammation of the brain & usually caused by a virus
  11. Alzheimer's disease
    • 1. A group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control:
    • .....a. Thought
    • .....b. Memory
    • .....c. Language

    2. Marked by progressive deterioration that affects both the memory & reasoning capabilities of an individual
  12. Cognition
    • Describes the mental activities associated with:
    • .....1. Thinking
    • .....2. Learning
    • .....3. Memory
  13. Mild Cognitive Disorder
    1. Memory disorder usually associated with recently acquired information (short term memory?)

    2. May be a predictor of Alzheimer's disease
  14. Dementia
    • 1. Slowly progressive decline in mental abilities including:
    • .....a. Memory
    • .....b. Thinking
    • .....c. Judgment

    2. Often accompanied by personality changes
  15. Encephalitis
    1. Inflammation of the brain

    2. Can be caused by a viral infection, such as rabies

    Note: Contrast with meningitis which is inflammation of the meningies & can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection
  16. Parkinson's disease
    • 1. Chronic, degenerative CNS disorder
    • 2. Characterized by:
    • .....a. Fine muscle tremors
    • .....b. Rigidity
    • .....c. Slow or shuffling gait
    • 3. Chacteristic gait is caused by gradually progressive loss of control over movements
    • 4. Caused by inadequate levels of neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain
  17. Reye's Syndrome (RS)
    1. Potentially serious or deadly disorder in children

    • 2. Characterized by:
    • .....a. Vomiting
    • .....b. Confusion

    3. Syndrome usually follows a viral infection in which the child was treated with ASPIRIN
  18. Tetanus (lockjaw)
    • 1. Acute & potenially fatal infection of the CNS
    • 2. Caused by toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria
    • 3. Tetanus can be prevented thru immunization
    • 4. Without this protection, the condition is typically acquired thru a deep puncture wound
  19. Amnesia
    • 1. Memory disturbance characterized by total or partial inability to recall past experiences
    • 2. This condition can be caused by:
    • .....a. Brain injury
    • .....b. Illness
    • .....c. Psychological disturbance
  20. Concussion
    • 1. A violent shaking up or jarring of the brain
    • 2. May result in a temporary loss of awareness & function.
  21. Note: Contrast with cerebral contusion which is a bruising of brain tissue when the brain bounces against the skull
  22. Cerebral Contusion
    • 1. Brusing of brain tissue
    • 2. Result of a head injury that causes brain to bounce against skull

    Note: Contrast with concussion.
  23. Cranial Hematoma
    • 1. Collection of blood trapped in the tissues of brain
    • 2. Named by location
    • 3. Types include:
    • ......a. Epidural - located in dura mater
    • ......b. Subdural - below the dura mater
  24. Traumatic Brain Injury
    1. Cause: Blow to head or penetrating head injury that damages brain

    2. Not all blows to head result in damage to brain

    • 3. When injury does occur it can range from:
    • .....a. Mild (brief change in mental status) to
    • .....b. Severe ( longer lasting effects)
  25. Coup
    Injury that occurs within skull near point of impact

    Example: Hitting windshield in car accident
  26. Contrecoup (counter blow)
    Injury that occurs beneath the skull opposite area of impact
  27. Shaken Baby Syndrome
    • 1. Describes result of child being violently shaken by someone.
    • 2. Action can cause:
    • .....a. Brain injury
    • .....b. Blindness
    • .....c. Fractures
    • .....d. Seizures
    • .....e. Paralysis
    • .....f. Death
  28. Levels of Consciousness
    • 1. Term used to describe alterations in consciousness:
    • .....a. Conscious
    • .....b. Unconscious
    • 2. Caused by:
    • .....a. Injury
    • .....b. Disease
    • .....c. Substances such as:
    • ............(1.) Medications
    • ............(2.) Drugs
    • ............(3.) Alcohol
  29. Conscioius
    State of being awake, alert, & responsing appropriately
  30. Unconscious
    State of being unaware & unable to respond to any stimuli, including pain
  31. Lethargy
    • 1. Lowered state of consciousness marked by:
    • .....a. Listlessness
    • .....b. Drowsiness
    • .....c. Apathy
  32. Apathy
    • Means:
    • 1. Indifference
    • 2. Reduced level of activity
  33. Stupor
    Unresponsive state from which a person can be only be aroused briefly & with vigorous, repeated attempts
  34. Syncope (fainting)
    • 1. Brief loss of consciousness
    • 2. Caused by the decreaed flow of blood to the brain
  35. Coma
    • 1. Profound (deep) state of unconsciousness
    • 2. Marked by:
    • .....a. Absence of spontaneous eye movements
    • .....b. No response to painful stimuli
    • .....c. Lack of speech
  36. Comatose
    Refers to person who is in a coma
  37. Persistence of Vegatative State
    • 1. Type of coma
    • 2. Patient exhibits alternating sleep & wake cycles
    • 3. Caused by severe damage to certain areas of the brain
    • 4. Person is unconscious even when appearing awake
  38. Delirium
    • 1. Acute condition of:
    • ......a. Confusion
    • ......b. Disorientation
    • ......c. Disordered thinking & memory
    • ......d. Agitation
    • ......e. Hallucinations

    2. Condition usually caused by treatable condition, such as a high fever
  39. Delirious
    Means condition of suffering from delirium
  40. Brain Tumor
    • 1. Growth located inside the skull
    • 2. Can be:
    • .....a. Malignant
    • .....b. Benign
  41. Malignant Brain Tumor
    1. An invasive tumor that destroys brain tissue

    2. Primary site - Cancer originates in the brain

    3. Secondary site - Cancer metastasizes to brain from another body system
  42. Benign Brain Tumors
    • 1. Tumor that does not invade the brain tissue
    • 2. Tumor growth is surrounded by rigid bone
    • 3. As tumor grows, can damage brain tissue by:
    • .....a. Placing pressure against tissues
    • .....b. Increasing intracranial pressure
  43. Intracranial Pressure
    • 1. Amount of pressure inside skull
    • 2. Elevated intracranial pressure can be due to a:
    • .....a. Tumor
    • .....b. Injury
    • .....c. Improper drainage of cerebrospinal fluid
  44. Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke or CVA)
    • 1. Damage to the brain that
    • 2. Occurs when blood flow to brain is disrupted because a vessel is either blocked or ruptured
    • 3. Location of disruption determine symptoms
    • 4. Damage to one side of brain causes symptoms on other side
  45. Ischemic Stroke
    • 1. Most common type of stroke in older people
    • 2. Occurs when flow of blood to brain is blocked
    • 3. May be caused by:
    • .....a. Narrowing of carotid artery
    • .....b. Cerebral thrombosis
  46. Cerebral Thrombosis
    • 1. Occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery that supplies blood to the cerebrum
    • 2. Blockage damages the controls of:
    • ......a. Movments
    • ......b. Senses
    • ......c. Speech
  47. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
    • 1. Temporary interruption in blood supply to the brain
    • 2. Symptoms include:
    • .....a. Numbness
    • .....b. Blurred vision
    • .....c. Dizziness
    • .....d. Loss of balance
    • 3. A TIA passes in less than an hour
    • 4. Is often a warning sign of risk for a more serious & debilitating stroke
  48. Transient
    Means passing quickly
  49. Ischemic
    Means pertaining to the disruption of the blood supply
  50. Aphasia
    • 1. Loss of language ability including:
    • ......a. Speaking
    • .....b. Writing
    • .....c. And/or comprehending written or spoken language
    • 2. Often caused by brain damage associated with a sstroke
  51. Hemorrhagic Stroke (bleed)
    • 1. Occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks
    • 2. Also occurs when brain aneurysm ruptures
    • 3. This type of stroke is less common than ischemic strokes
    • 4. Often fatal
    • 5. Affects the area of the brain damaged by the leaking blood
  52. Aneurysm
    Localized, weak, balloon-like enlargement of an artery wall
  53. Insomnia
    • 1. Prolonged abnormal inability to sleep
    • 2. Usually a symptom of another problem such as:
    • .....a. Depression
    • .....b. Pain
    • .....c. Excessive caffeine
  54. Narcolepsy
    • 1. Sleep disorder
    • 2. Consists of sudden & uncontrollable brief episodes of falling asleep during the day
  55. Sleep Deprivation
    • 1. Lack of sufficient restorative sleep over cumulative period
    • 2. Causes physical or psychiatric symptoms
    • 3. Affects performance or tasks
  56. Somnambulism (Sleepwalking or Noctambulism)
    Condition of walking or performing some other activity without awakening
  57. Myelitis
    Inflammation of spinal cord

    Note: Term also applies to inflammation of bone marrow
  58. Myelosis
    Tumor of the spinal cord.

    Note: Also means abnormal proliferation of bone marrow tissue
  59. Poliomyelitis (Polio)
    • 1. Highly contagious viral disease
    • 2. Can be prevented through immunization
    • 3. No known cure
  60. Post-polio Syndrome
    Recurrence later in life of some polio symptoms in individuals who have had childhood polio & recovered from it
  61. Radiculitis (pinched nerve)
    • 1. Inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve
    • 2. Causes pain & numbness radiating down the affected limb
    • 3. Usually applies to portion of the root that lies between the spinal cord & intervertebral canal of the spinal column
  62. Cervical Radiculopathy
    Nerve pain caused by pressure on spinal nerve roots in neck region
  63. Lumbar Radiculopathy
    • Nerve pain in the lower back caused by:
    • 1. Muscle spasms
    • 2. Nerve root irritation from compression of vertebral disks (such as herniated disk)
  64. Multiple Sclerosis
    • 1. Progressive, autoimmunes disorder
    • 2. Characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of myelin sheaths
    • 3. Causes scarring to:
    • .....a. Brain
    • .....b. Spinal cord
    • .....c. Optic nerves
    • 4. Disrupts transmission of nerve impulses
  65. Demyelination
    Loss of patches of the protective myelin sheath
  66. Exacerbation (flare)
    • 1. Episode of worsening symptoms.
    • 2. Between theses episodes, the patient may be in remission
  67. Remission
    Time during which the symptoms ease, but the disease has not been cured
  68. Flare
    • 1. Episode of worsening symptoms (exacerbation.)
    • 2. Between these episodes, the patient may be in remission
  69. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease)
    • 1. Rapidly progressive neurological disease
    • 2. Attacks nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles
    • 3. Course: Patients become progressively weaker until they are completely paralyzed & die.
  70. Bell's Palsy
    • 1. Temporary paralysis of 7th cranial nerve
    • 2. Causes paralysis only of affected side of face
    • 3. Paralysis symptoms can include:
    • .....a. Inability to close the eye
    • .....b. Pain
    • .....c. Tearing
    • .....d. Drooling
    • .....e. Hypersensitivity to sound in affected ear
    • .....g. Impairment of taste
  71. Guillain-Barre Syndrome (Infectious Polyneuritis)
    • 1. Inflammation of myelin sheath of pheripheral nerves
    • 2. Charcterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness
    • 3. Can lead to temporary paralysis
    • 4. An autoimmune reaction that can occur after:
    • .....a. Certain viral infections
    • .....b. Immunization
  72. Sciatica
    • 1. Inflammation of the sciatic nerve
    • 2. Results in pain, burning, & tingling along course of affected sciatic nerve thru thigh, leg, & foot
  73. Trigeminal Neuralgia
    • 1. Inflammation of the 5th cranial nerve
    • 2. Characterized by severe lightening-like pain
    • 3. Sudden, intense, brief attacks of severe pain affecting:
    • .....a. Cheeks
    • .....b. Lips
    • .....c. Gums
    • 4. Only on side of face inervated by affected nerve
  74. Cerebral Palsy
    • 1. Damage that affects the cerebrum
    • .....a. Most frequent in premature or low birth-weight babies
    • .....b. Usually caused by injury that occurs:
    • ..........(1.) During pregnancy
    • ..........(2.) During birth
    • ..........(3.) Soon after birth
    • 2. Condition chaaracterized by:
    • .....a. Poor muscle tone
    • .....b. Spasticity
    • .....c. Speech defects
    • .....Other neurologic deficiencies
  75. Spasticity
    Condition in which certain muscles are continuously contracted
  76. Palsy
    • Means paralysis of body part accompanied by:
    • .....a. Loss of feeling
    • .....b. Uncontrolled body movements (such as shaking)
  77. Epilepsy (seizure disorder)
    • 1. Chronic neurological condition
    • 2. Characterized by recurrent episodes of varying severity
    • 3. Can usually be controlled by medication
  78. Seizure
    • 1. Sudden surge of electrical activity in brain
    • 2. Affects how a person feels or acts for a short time
    • 3. Some seizures can hardly be noticed; others cause a brief loss of consciousness
    • 4. Are symptoms of different disorders that can affect brain
    • Can also be caused by extreme high fever, brain injury, or brain lesion.
  79. Causalgia
    Persistent, severe buring pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
  80. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Symdrome)
    • 1. A form of causalgia with burning pain much worse than would be expected from the injury
    • 2. Pain that occurs after:
    • .....a. Injury to an arm or leg
    • .....b. Heart attack
    • .....c. Stroke
    • .....d. Other medical problem
    • 3.
  81. Hyperesthesia
    Condition of abnormal & excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
  82. Paresthesia
    • 1. Refers to a burning or pricking sensation that is usually felt in the:
    • .....a. Hands
    • .....b. Arms
    • .....c. Feet
    • .....d. Legs
    • .....e. Can also occur in other parts of body
    • 2. These sensations may constitute:
    • .....a. First symptoms of peripheral neuropathy
    • .....b. Drug side effect
  83. Peripheral Neuropathy (peripheral neuritis)
    • 1. Disorder of nerves that carry information to & from the brain & spinal cord
    • 2. Produces:
    • .....a. Pain
    • .....b. Loss of sensation
    • .....c. Inability to control muscles, particularly in:
    • .............(1.) Arms
    • .............(2.) Legs
  84. Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS)
    • 1. Neurological disorder
    • 2. Characterized by uncomfortable feeling in legs
    • 3. Produces a strong urge to move legs
    • 4. Sensation is usually most noticeable:
    • .....a. At night
    • .....b. When trying to rest

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview