Nervous System

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rmski77
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147604
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Nervous System
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2012-04-16 06:56:52
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Nervous System BIOL 110 LAB
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Nervous System BIOL 110 LAB
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  1. Nervous System consists of the __NS and the __NS.
    C(Central) and P(Peripheral)
  2. CNS; 3 parts
    • 1. Brain
    • 2. Spinal Cord
    • 3. Neuroglial Cells
  3. Neuroglial Cells are ...
    CNS support cells

    they cannot conduct action potential
  4. PNS; 4 parts
    • 1. Somatosensory Nervous System
    • 2. Cranial Nerves
    • 3. Autonomic Nervous System (visceral motor)
    • 4. Enteric
  5. Somatosensory
    Sensory and Motor (voluntary)
  6. Cranial Nerves
    12 total nerves
  7. Autonomic Nervous System; 2 Divisions
    • 1. Sympathetic
    • 2. Parasympathetic
  8. Sympathetic division
    fight or flight responce
  9. Parasympathetic division
    rest and digest responce
  10. Enteric
    digestive tract
  11. What does a Neuron do?
    • AKA Nerve
    • conducts an action potential
  12. The Neuron consists of; 5 parts
    • 1. Receptors
    • 2. Dendrites
    • 3. Soma
    • 4. Axon
    • 5. Synaptic Knob
  13. Receptors are?
    modified dendritic endings
  14. Dendrite is?
    primary site for recieving signals, resembles bare branches of a tree
  15. Soma is known as ?
    The body of a nerve cell and the decision maker
  16. Soma consists of ? 3 parts
    • 1. Nucleus & Nucleolus
    • 2. parikaryon with Nissl Bodies
    • 3. Grey Matter
  17. Nucleus and Nusleolus do what?
    Make a decision
  18. Perikaryon is
    The cell body
  19. Nissl Bodies are?
    bundles of ribosomes that make some proteins and neurotransmitters
  20. Grey Matter
    is Hydrophillic, indicates nerve cell bodies due to having nissl bodies
  21. Axon ?
    • hillock
    • terminals
    • Myelin Sheath
    • Schwann/neurolemmal cells
    • Nodes of Ranvier
    • *conducts action potential
  22. describe an axon hillock
    is the beggining of the axon and starts the action potential
  23. axon terminals
    the branches at the end of an axon that have synaptic knobs at the end of them
  24. Myelin Sheath is?
    a fatty insulater; type of nerve fiber
  25. Schwann cells
    make myelin in layers to form the Myelin Sheath
  26. neurolemmal cells
    is the last layer of myelin produced by a schwann cell and has the nucleus in it
  27. Nodes of Ranvier is the?
    unmyelinated gaps between neurolemmal cells
  28. 2 types of action potential conduction?
    • 1. Saltatory Conduction
    • 2. Continuous Propagation
  29. Saltatory Conduction
    Only occurs on Myelinated Nerves, is extremely fast, the action potential appears to jump from Node to Node of Ranvier
  30. Continuous Propagation
    occurs only on nonmyelinated nerves, is slower, voltage gated channels along cell open and close in a series as the action potential moves along
  31. Synaptic Knob
    some neurotransmitter are stored here and are released when action potential reaches it
  32. Structural classification of a nerve cell; 4 types
    • 1. Unipolar
    • 2. Bipolar
    • 3. Multipolar
    • 4. Anaxonic
  33. Unipolar
    has only one distinctive axon; somatosensory neuron located in DRG(Dorsal Root Ganglion)
  34. Bipolar
    has two distinct axons; located in the retina of the eye
  35. Multipolar
    has many poles but only one distinct axon; alpha motor neurons located in anterior motor horn
  36. Anaxonic
    has many poles and no axon; interneurons of CNS
  37. The Synapse; 3 parts
    • 1. Presynaptic Neuron
    • 2. Synaptic Cleft
    • 3. Postsynaptic Neuron
  38. Presynaptic Neuron
    transmittes nerve impulse by releasing neurotransmitters into cleft
  39. Synaptic Cleft
    is the space between 2 neurons
  40. Postsynaptic Neuron
    recieves the nerve impulse as neurotransmitters
  41. Action Potential; 3 steps
    • 1. Polorized aka resting potential
    • 2. Depolarized aka action potential
    • 3. Repolarization
  42. Polarized
    is when there is a negatively charged cell -70mV has a threshold of -60mV when the Gates open
  43. Depolarization
    is when there is a rush of positively charged sodium ions(Na+) inside cell bringing the internal charge to +30mV
  44. Repolarization 2 changes
    • 1. Hyperpolarization
    • 2. Sodium/Potassium Pump
  45. Hyperpolarization
    is when there is a rush of positively charged potassium ions(K+) outside cell bringing the internal charge to -90mV
  46. Sodium/Potassium Pump
    is the gradual exchange of sodium ions out of cell and potassium ions into cell until the cell is polarized with an internal charge of -70mV
  47. Neuroglial cells are? 3 cells; and do?
    • 1. Microglial Cells
    • 2. Ependymal Cells
    • 3. Astrocytes
    • 4. Oligodendrocytes

    support cells of CNS
  48. Microglial cells
    are immune cells(phagocytes) that remove waste and toxins; eat
  49. Ependymal Cells
    occur in clusters located in the choroid plexus and produce CSF(Cerebral Spinal Fluid)
  50. Astrocytes
    make up the Blood Brain Barrier to prevent bacteria and viruses from entering the CNS
  51. Oligodendrocytes
    Make Myelin in the CNS
  52. Meninges is the? and is made up of 3 layers?
    protective tissue around the CNS

    • 1. Dura
    • 2. Arachnoid
    • 3. Pia
  53. Dura layer
    outermost layer of the meninges, strong
  54. Arachnoid layer
    spider web like tissue that contains CSF(Cerebral Spinal Fluid) in the Subarachnoid Space; creates a cushion against movement
  55. Pia
    intimately attached to CNS, is form fitting
  56. Meningitis bacterial
    treat with antibiotics
  57. Meningitis viral
    palliative care/ wait it out
  58. Meningitis c/o
    stimuli senstitive
  59. test for Meningitis
    ortho test/SOTO HALL- pain in back of neck, old test
  60. CSF(Cranial Spinal Fluid) path (8)
    • 1. secreted by choroid plexus in each lateral ventrical
    • 2. into third ventrical
    • 3. third ventrical choroid plexus adds fluid
    • 4. into fourth ventrical
    • 5. fourth ventrical choroid plexus adds more fluid
    • 6. flows through 3 apertures
    • 7. fills subarachnoid and spinal canal
    • 8. at arachnoid granualations absorbed into blood
  61. Hydrocephalus
    CSF(Cranial Spinal Fluid) build up/ swelling
  62. encephalitis
    nerves infected; ex. west nile
  63. Spinal Cord & Nerves; 9 topics
    • 1. Ganglion
    • 2. plexus
    • 3. 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    • 4. Cervical Enlargement
    • 5. Intercostal Nerves
    • 6. Lumbar Enlargement
    • 7. Conus Medularis
    • 8. Cauda Equina
    • 9. Filum Terminale
  64. Ganglion is
    a group of nerve cell bodies; appears as fat area in nerve
  65. Plexus is
    a group of nerve fibers/axon & dendrites
  66. Cervical Enlargement has 2 plexus
    • 1. Cervical Plexus
    • 2. Brachial Plexus
  67. Cervical Plexus has
    Phrenic Nerve which intervates the diaphragm
  68. Brachial Plexus has 3 nerves
    • 1. Radial Nerve
    • 2. Median Nerve
    • 3. Unlar Nerve
  69. Radial Nerve controls
    wrist extensors and thumb
  70. Median Nerve controls
    wrist flexors
  71. Ulnar Nerve controls
    Pinky
  72. Intercostal Nerves are
    located between ribs assist in breathing
  73. Shingles affects
    DRG(Dorsal Root Ganglion) sensory of intercostal nerves
  74. Polio affects
    anterior motor horn or alpha motor neuron and causes paralysis
  75. Lumbar Enlargement has 2 plexus
    • 1. Lumbar Plexus
    • 2. Sacral Plexus
  76. Lumbar Plexus consists of 3 Nerves
    • 1. Obturator Nerve
    • 2. Femoral Nerve
    • 3. Tibial Nerve
  77. Obturor Nerve controls
    adductor group/medial thigh
  78. Femoral Nerve controls
    knee extensors/quads; front of thigh/knee; L4
  79. Tibial Nerve controls
    knee flexors/hamstrings
  80. Sacral Plexus consists of one Nerve
    Sciatic Nerve aka sciatica
  81. Sciatic Nerve controls
    • Hamstrings
    • peroneal/fibular nerve/calf muscles plantor flexors
  82. Conus Medularis is
    where spinal cord ends; near L2
  83. Cauda Equina is
    the spinal nerves that continue down spinal canal inferior to conus medularis
  84. Filum Terminale is
    the terminal ligaments end of meninges which attaches to coccyx
  85. Spinal tap/ lumbar puncture occurs at
    L4
  86. Spinal Cord Cross Section includes 6 parts
    • 1. Spinal Nerve
    • 2. Dorsal Root Ganglion
    • 3. Grey H
    • 4. Columns
    • 5. Denticulate Ligament
    • 6. Central Canal
  87. Spinal Nerve is
    a mixed nerve
  88. Dorsal Root Ganglion is
    a sensory nerve cell/somatosensory nerve cell
  89. Grey H contains 2 pairs of horns and in the center is
    • 1. Anterior Motor Horn
    • 2. Lateral Horn

    Interneuron
  90. Anterior Motor Horn has
    Alpha Motor Neurons
  91. Lateral Horn has
    sympathetic nerve cell bodies
  92. Interneurons are
    association neurons that provide and gather information

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