KIN 2509 Ch 14

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KIN 2509 Ch 14
2012-04-14 16:23:13

Ch 14 Neurology
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  1. abscess
    a localized collection of blood that results from invasion of a pyogenic bacterium or other pathogens
  2. afferent nerves
    • nerves that carry impulses toward the brain and spinal cord from the muscles, glands, and organs
    • sensory nerves
  3. autonomic nervous system
    • nerves that control involuntary body functions
    • these nerves automatically carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, glands, and internal organs
  4. axon
    • part of the nerve cell
    • a microscopic fiber that carries the nerve impulse along a nerve cell
  5. blood-brain barrier
    • an anatomic physiological feature of the brain tissue that prevents or slows the passage of some drugs and other chemical compounds and disease-causing organisms such as viruses from entering the central nervous system
    • created by the modification of brain capillaries that prevents many substances from leaving the blood and crossing the capillary walls into the brain tissue
  6. cell body
    part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
  7. central nervous system
    one of the two main divisions of the nervous sytem, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord
  8. cerebrospinal fluid
    liquid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord; provides nutrients and protection
  9. dendrite
    microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nerve impulse
  10. dura mater
    a fibrous connective tissue membrane, the outermost of the meninges covering the spinal cord (dura mater spinalis) and brain (dura mater cerebri or dura mater encephali)
  11. efferent nerves
    • nerves that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands and organs
    • motor nerves
  12. ganglion
    collection of nerve cell bodies, chiefly collected in groups outside the CNS
  13. meninges
    the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
  14. nerve, nerve fibers
    • tissues outside the CNS that connect the brain and spinal cord with various parts of the body
    • bundles of axons following a common pathway
  15. neuroglia
    • one of two kinds of nerve cells
    • primary function is to provide structural support to neurons
  16. neuron
    • the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the nervel cell body, dendrites, and an axon
    • specialized cells capable of generating and transmitting nerve impulses from one location to another
    • classified according to the direction in which they transmit nerve impulses
  17. neurotransmitter
    • a chemical messenger released across the synapse between cells in order to stimulate or inhibit an adjoining cell
    • ex - acetylcholine, epinephrine, and dopamine
  18. nervous tissue
    all the tissue of the CNS and peripheral nervous system that consists of neurons and specialized supporting cells
  19. peripheral nervous system
    • one of the two main divisions of the nervous system
    • portion of nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia that like outside of the brain and spinal cord
  20. synapse
    the space or juncture between nerve cells or between a nerve cells and another cells (muscle or gland cell) across which a nerve impulse is transmitted via neurotransmitters
  21. astr/o
  22. ax/o
    axis, axon
  23. dendr/o
  24. gangli/o
  25. gli/o
    glue, neuroglia tissue
  26. myel/o
    bone marrow, spinal cord
  27. neur/o
  28. olig/o
  29. synapt/o
    synapsis, point of contact
  30. astroglia
    a type of CNS supporting cell; one of the large neuroglia cells of nervous tissue
  31. axoplasm
    neuroplasm of the axon
  32. dendritic
    pertaining to a tree-like or branched form
  33. ganglitis
    inflammation of the ganglion
  34. glioma
    tumor composed of neuroglia tissue
  35. myelaglia
    pain of the spinal cord or its membranes
  36. neurolysis
    destruction of a nerve
  37. oligocyte
    cell that resembles an astrocyte but has fewer projections
  38. synaptic
    pertaining to a synapse
  39. cephal/o
  40. cerebell/o
  41. cortic/o
  42. crani/o
  43. dur/o
    dura mater
  44. encephal/o
  45. lex/o
    word, phrase
  46. medull/o
  47. mening/o
  48. radicul/o
    nerve root
  49. spin/o
  50. thalam/o
  51. thec/o
    sheath (usually refers to the meninges)
  52. ventricul/o
    ventricle (of heart or brain)
  53. clon/o
  54. kinesi/o
  55. narc/o
    stupor, numbness, sleep
  56. tax/o
    order, coordination
  57. ton/o
  58. cephalic
    pertaining to the head
  59. cerebellar
    pertaining to the cerebellum
  60. decerebrate
    cessation of cerebral function
  61. cortical
    pertaining to the cortex
  62. craniofacial
    pertaining to the skull and face
  63. epidural
    relating to, upon or on the dura
  64. encephaloma
    tumor of the brain
  65. dyslexia
    condition characterized by difficulty in reading
  66. medullary
    pertaining to the medulla
  67. meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges
  68. radiculopathy
    any disease of a spinal nerve root
  69. spinal
    pertaining to the spine
  70. thalamotomy
    destruction by incision of part of the thalamus to treat intractable pain or psychosis
  71. intrathecal
    pertaining to within the meninges
  72. ventriculopuncture
    use of a needle to puncture a ventricle
  73. clonic
    pertaining to increased reflex; alternately contracting and relaxing the muscles
  74. kinesiotherapy
    treatment by movement or exercise
  75. narcolepsy
    a disorder in which a person has sudden strong urges to sleep
  76. ataxia
    condition characterized by a lack of coordination
  77. tonic
    pertaining to a state of continuous muscle contraction
  78. bi-
  79. contra-
  80. para-
    near, beside, beyond
  81. quadri-
  82. uni-
  83. -asthenia
    weakness, debility
  84. -esthesia
  85. bilateral
    pertaining to two sides
  86. contralateral
    pertaining to opposite sides
  87. paralysis
    loss of purposeful movement, usually as a result of neurologic disease, drugs, or toxins
  88. quadriplegia
    paralysis of all four extremities
  89. unilateral
    pertaining to or affecting only one side
  90. myasthenia
    weakness or debility of the muscles
  91. anesthesia
    without feeling
  92. -kinesia
  93. -lalia
    speech, babble
  94. -lepsy
  95. -paresis
    partial paralysis
  96. -phasia
  97. -plegia
  98. -trophy
    development, nourishment
  99. hyperkinesia
    excessive movement
  100. echolalia
    repetition of words
  101. epilepsy
    seizure disorder
  102. hemiparesis
    paralysis of one half of the body
  103. aphasia
    an abnormal neurologic condition in which language function is defective or absent because of an injury to certain areas of the cerebral cortex
  104. hemiplagia
    paralysis affecting half of the body
  105. dystrophy
    disorder caused by poor nutrition or nourishment