Blunt Force Injury

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Blunt Force Injury
2012-04-14 17:50:51
Senior CSA Test

Blunt Force Injury
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  1. The three basic lesion resulting from blunt force trauma are ______, __________, and __________
    • contusion
    • abrasion
    • laceration
  2. A ____________ signifies hemorrhage into the skin, the tissues under sthe skin or both.
    contusion (bruise)
  3. ______________ shaped __________ bruises are often seen in battered children and are caused by whipping with a looped rope or extension cord.
    • Horseshoe
    • double-lined
  4. The actual site of injury must at all times be ascertained at __________, as hemorrhage may gravitate along fascial planes to adjoining areas.
  5. Hemorrhage in the soft tissues around the eyes and eyelids commononly suggest a fracture of the _______________.
    base of the skull
  6. A deep bruise may not become apparent on the body surfaces until ___________ after the injury
    several days
  7. If death occurs before the dicoloration in the skin has had time to become manifest, only _________________ of the areas will disclose the presence of the injury.
  8. The color of a bruise changes from light bluish red to dark purple, green, yelllow, and brown. This change proceeds from the ___________- of the bruise toward its __________, and vice versa.
    • periphery
    • center
  9. The change from dark purple occurs roughly withina ___, at the end of which greenish yellow and later _________ discoloration appear. Disappearance of a bruise may be expected within two _____ to one _______.
    • brown
    • weeks
    • month
  10. Numerous bruises of differing and over various parts of the body, particularly joints, are often encountered in __________.
    chronic alcoholics
  11. It is not uncommon to find an __________ dead in his bed following a head inury sustained the preceding day.
  12. Superficial face and scalp wounds generally tend to ______________ compared to similar injuries elsewhere on the body.
    bleed more profusely
  13. An ___________ is due to the scraping of the skin with removal of its superficial layers.
  14. A _____ is when a bullet sidesipes the body.
  15. A ________ is caused by a sharp edge or fingernails.
  16. A _____ __________ is caused by the frictional force of rubbing against a surface, as in dragging over the ground.
    brush burn
  17. A clothesline or electric wire is _________ likely to bruise the tissue than wide tape or a towel.
  18. Bleeding _______ usually occur due to the superficial nature of an abrasion, so it is __________ to distinguish between an abrasion sustained during life and one that occurreed after death.
    • does not;
    • difficult
  19. _____________ begins within several hours and the reaction of the body generally permits a rough appraisal of the age of the lesion.
  20. A hard blow to the body with a flat object may cause a __________ patterened after the weave of the clothing.
  21. A __________ is a tear produced by blunt trauma. The _________ and its __________ determine the appearance, depth, and associated injuries, such as fracture.
    • laceration;
    • force
    • direction
  22. ____________ of the edges of a laceration indicates the _________ in which the impact occurred. Equal _________ on all sides of a laceration is evidence of a perpendicular impact.
    • Undermining;
    • direction;
    • undermining
  23. The two most common types of laceration are (1) those due to a ____________ blow with a relatively broad object or sustained in falling to the ground; (2) those due to a _______ blow, which if superficial may tear only the skin, or deeper may separate the skin and the subcutaneous tissues from the udnerlying muscle fascia.
    • perpendicular
    • glancing
  24. The edges of a laceration, particularly one over______ are, are charaterically undermined due to the crushing and tearing force of the impact. Between the opposing sides run multiple delicate threads of _________, consisting of nerve,elastic and connective __________ and blood vessels.
    • tissue (tissue bridging)
    • tissue
  25. Laceration wound edges are commonly ____, and the ___ corresponds to that of the impacting surface
    • abraded;
    • abraded area
  26. When falling on the face, the skin over the outer and upper rims of the eye socket is commonly _______. The skin over the cheekbones and lower jaw is also commonly injuried in a fall.
  27. A fall on the back of the head will result in the abraded scalp surface will be _________ and completely circumscribe the laceration.
  28. However severe a _____ impact maybe, external evidence of injury is frequently ________ or _______, even in the presence of massive internal injuries.
    • blunt;
    • minimal or absent
  29. Blunt force trauma can be fatal with _________ external ____ internal evicence of injury.
    • neither
    • nor
  30. A sudden forceful impact to the chest can cause instantaneous cardiac arrest ______ demonstrable damage to the chest wall or internal organ--causing _______.
    • without
    • arrhythmia
  31. The fracture lines on the skull usually conform to certain characteric patterns. A fall on a sharp corner of a piece of furniture, a blow by a hammer or impact with the pointed edge of a rock will probably cause a ____ fracture in which the bone fragments are pushed _______.
    • depressed
    • inward
  32. Commonly, the facture site resemble the ________ pattern of a spider web.
  33. In general, it may be said that an injury to the head sustained as a result of a fall is more commonly located in the level of the ____________________, while an injury resulting from a blow is mostly situated above this level.
    brim of the hat
  34. Three principle types of factures of the base of the skull are generaly recognized, depending on the direction of the impacting force: __________, ___ and _________.
    • longitudinal
    • transverse
    • ring
  35. __________ divides the base of the skull into two halves with impact either on the face and forehead, on the back of the head, or in front-to-back compression on the head.
    Longitudinal (front to back)
  36. ___________ fracture, which divides the base of the skull into a front and rear half, occurs from impact on either side of the head or as a result of side to side compression of the head.
  37. __________ fractures of the base of the skull separating the rim of the foramen magnum from the remainder of the base, usually occurs from a fall from a height if the victim lands on feet or buttocks
  38. Bleeding from the ears, nose or mouth following head injury suggests a fracture of the ___________ of the skull.
  39. A fracture at the distal end of the radius is usually caused by a fall on the outstreatched ____.
  40. Compression fractures of the vertebrae are frequently assoicate with a _______.
    fall from a great distance
  41. A fat embolism signifies the presence of fat droplet in the bloodstreem. It occurs in all varieties of bluent force injury and the most imporatant casueative injuries are ________ of the bones, _________ and ______ injuries of the subcutaneous fat tissue. Many studies indicate that the incidence of fat embolism following fracture of bones is nearly ______ %.
    • fractures
    • crushing
    • tearing
    • 100%
  42. It is believed that the heart is especially prone to rupture when it is full, as at the end of the ______ phase.
  43. Tears of the heart commonly involve the ____ ventricle, which is thinner and located anteriorly, immediately under the sternum.
  44. The stomach or small intestine can rupture due to an _________ ________ blow.
    unexpected forceful
  45. Human bites seldom cause _____ of the skin and far more frequently result in the production of semi-ciruclar or crescentic patterned _____.
    • tearing
    • abrasions
  46. Injuries from biting generally have ______ overtones.
  47. Bit marks are generally located on or about the _________ or _________.
    • genitalia
    • breasts