Sharp Force Injury

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Sharp Force Injury
2012-04-14 20:59:58
Senior CSA Test

Sharp Force Injury
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  1. A _____ or _________ wound results whenever a sharp-edged object is drawn over the skin with sufficient pressure to produce an injury that is _______ than it is deep.
    • cut
    • incision
    • longer
  2. The wound edges of a cut maybe straight or jagged, depending on the shape of the cutting instrument, but they are never ____ or _________.
    • abraded
    • undermined
  3. Another difference between a laceration and incision is the absence of _____ of soft tissue in sharp force injuries.
  4. A ______ wound results from penetration of a pointed instrument into the depths of the body causing a wound that is _________ than it is long.
    • stab
    • deeper
  5. A stab wound is usually devoid of _________, but it if is present it was most likely caused by the impact of the fist that held the weapon.
  6. _______ of the edges of a stab wound is usually absent except when the handle or the hilt of the knife abuts the skin. __________ or ______ of the edges of the stab would would suggest that the blade had been completely inserted, particularly if coarse fabric or clothing intervened between the handle of the weapon and skin.
    • Abrasion
    • Abrasion or bruising
  7. Unless the blade penetrates the body at ___ degree angle, all sides of the hilt may not be equally imprinted on the skin. If the blade strikes in a downward direction, the hilt mark is accentuated ___ the stab wound, but if the blade is directed upward, the mark is ___ the stab wound.
    • 90
    • above
    • below
  8. The amount of blood lost is often ________ since bleeding may be mostly ______.
    • minimal
    • internal
  9. ___________ ___________ are cuts or slashes on the upper extremities, especially the forearms and hands.
    Defense wounds
  10. Defense injuries on the lower extremities suggest ____ _____, and are more common on ________ victims.
    • sexual assault
    • female
  11. Fingernail marks and abrasions that are produced by the tugging and rubbing of clothing occur in many instances of hand to hand combat andmost commonly in _______ cases.
  12. Fingernail marks are most often located on the __ and ___ and less frequently on the face, neck and chest.
    • hands
    • wrists
  13. Self-inflicted stab wounds are distinctly ______. When present, they are usually _____ and __________, although one or possibly two of the injuries may penetrate a vital organ or involve major blood vessel. Suicidal stabbings are _________ accompanied by cuts in other locations, such as ____ and ______ and less frequently the bend of the _______ and the _____.
    • uncommon
    • multiple
    • superficial
    • fequently
    • neck and wrist
    • elbow and ankles
  14. Suicidal cuts are usually _______ ___ cuts of _____ depth whose edges commonly reveal several sharp angles as if resulting from ____on the skin with repeated tentative incisions at the same locaiton.
    • multiple parallel
    • varying
    • sawing
  15. _________ wounds or marks are superficial cuts or evidence of sawing. Such marks are usually ________, while ______ are distinctly rare.
    • hesitation
    • horizontal
    • vertical
  16. ___________ linear scars are sometimes seen on the ____ or the bend of the ______ in sudden unexpected deaths. Attempts at suicide are frequently repeated until successful.
    • Horizontal
    • wrists
    • elbows
  17. Deep and extremely mutilating, widely gaping cuts such as slash wounds are rare in ________, incontradiction to _____.
    • suicides
    • homicides
  18. _________ cuts to the throat are often single and deep, indicating determination.
  19. While it is not usually possible to detertmine whether homicidal cuts run from left to right or vice versa, a ______ extension is sometimes noted at the ________ end of the wound.
    • superficial
    • terminal
  20. In a large number of cases, identificaiton of the weapon is based on the _______________ examination of the _________.
    • postmortem
    • wounds
  21. The edges of a knife wound are _____ and _____________, whereas the edges of a scissors or screwdriver wound bcome ________ as they are scraped by the dull surface of the weapon.
    • sharp
    • nonabraded
    • abraded
  22. The distance between two punctures in the skin must be carefully ________ as they might help identify a two-pronged weapon. The distance between the punctures varies depending on the _______ of the stabbing.
    • measured
    • angle
  23. Wounds produced by ________ _________ are irregular and jagged, their edges sharp and not abraded. Their depths may vary, but ______ penetrate a body cavity.
    • broken glass
    • rarely
  24. ___________ insturments result in gaping wounds of malicious appearance.
  25. Due to its rigidty, ________ maintains the dimensions and shape of a stab wound far better than ______. In fact, it is often possible to determine the type of weapon used to inflict injuy by examining the wound in the_________, this is especially true of the ____.
    • bone
    • skin and soft tissue
    • bone
    • skull
  26. The _______ of the back of the blade (i.e. its ______ ) is retained in the stab wound.
    • width
    • thickness
  27. Stab wounds and cuts will either remain slit shaped with two acute angles or will gape open depending on their location and their orientation with respect to the so-called ___ lines of _____.
    • cleavage
    • Langer
  28. A stab wound that lies __________ to the lines of Langer will gape, whereas one that runs ______ to them will remain slit or wedge shaped.
    • transversely
    • parallel
  29. One can return the skin surrounding the injury to its position before the skin was divided in effort to ________ the injury.
  30. Restored injuries should be ___________ and their new dimensions __________
    • photo'd
    • measured
  31. Restored injuries usually show the resulting slit to be considerably __________ than the original oval-shaped wound.
  32. V-shaped wounds are commonly interpreted as resulting from ________ in the same location. Experimentation indicates that that stabbing followed by simultaneous ____ and ____ gives rise to such injuries.
    • two stabbings
    • twisting
    • cutting
  33. The combination of vibration and extraordinary sharp searrated blades of _________knives account for their more devasting and deeper cuts than those produced with ordinary knives.
  34. The _____ of the stab wound does not depend on the ____ of the blade alone. The depth of a knife wound frequently _____ the lenght of the blade that caused it.
    • depth
    • length
    • exceeds
  35. The main factors that complicate cutting and stabbing injuries and that frequently lead to the death of the victim are (1) _________, (2) ______, (3)_________ due to blood inhalation, (4) _______, and (5) ________
    • exsanguination
    • air embolism
    • asphyxia
    • pnuemothorax
    • infection
  36. ___________ is by far the most common cause of death from cutting and stabbing.
  37. An __________ ____________ is usually the result of a cut or stab wound of the neck that exposes and penetrates one of the larger veins. due to the negative pressure in veins, air is sucked into the vessels. When mixed with blood air causes foam to be formed which produces a valve lock in the heart.
    air embolism
  38. __________ due to blood inhalation may follow a cut or stab wound in the neck, exposing the trachea or larynx--blood obstructs the air passages.
  39. _________ or air in the pleural cavity, usually results from a stab wound accompanied by bleeding into the pleural space (hemopneumothorax).
  40. _____________ of a stab wound or cut is a late complication that may take days or weeks to develop.
  41. Bloody _________ of the tissues at the site of an injury is probably the most valuable criterion that the injury was sustained during life.