DNA viruses

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Author:
manjinder
ID:
147636
Filename:
DNA viruses
Updated:
2012-04-16 17:03:39
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viruses
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viruses
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  1. DNA Viruses
    HHAPPPPy viruses
    • Hepadna, Herpes, Adeno, Pox, Parvo, Papilloma, Polyoma
    • All except Parvoviridae are dsDNA
    • ALL linear except papilloma, polyoma and hepadnaviruses (circular)
    • Pox complex envelope; and replicates in cytoplasm therefore carries its own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
  2. Herpes Viridae
    • enveloped
    • replicates in nucleus
    • get packed in the nucleus as well- intranuclear inclusion bodies
    • some of it buds off the cell membrane
    • remaining forms fusion w/ other cells and moves from one cell to next...syncytia fomation = multinucleated cells
    • Tzanck smear show giant multinucleated cells
    • primary infection reside in a nerve. Reactivation occurs during stress, menstruation, anxiety, fever etc.
    • vesicles looks like dew on a rose petal
  3. HSV-1 and HSV-2
    • establish infection in the mucosal epithelial cells and leads to formation of vesicles.
    • HSV-1 occur above the waist and HSV-2 occur below
    • Gingivostomatitis and cold sores: blister-like lesions on the oral mucosa and latent in trigeminal ganglion
    • Keratoconjunctivitis: spread from lips to eyes by rubbing.
    • Meningoencephalitis: #1 cause. spread from trigeminal ganglion. fever, headache and confusion; presence of erythrocytes and lymphocytes in the CSF. focal temporal lesions and perivascular cuffing.
    • Neonatal Herpes: passage through infected birth canal. Disseminated w/ liver involvement and high mortality, Encephalitis (HSV-2)- high mortality, skin, eyes or mouth
    • Rx: Acyclovir
  4. Varicella Zoster virus (VZV)
    • airborne, respiratory droplets
    • enters the respiratory tract --> replicates in LN --> spleen and liver --> skin rash --> latent in the dorsal root ganglion
    • Chicken Pox: fever, pharyngitis, malaise, rhinitis. Rash in different stages.
    • Shingles: Zoster, pain and vesicles located to 1 dermatome unilaterely.
    • can cause pneumonia and encephalitis
    • Aspirin contraindicated due to association w/ Reye's syndrome
    • Live, attenuated vaccine
  5. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
    • Virus infects nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, salivary and lymphoid tissues (posterior cervical nodes) --> latent infection of B cells (binds to CD 21) --> immune response which consists mainly of Tcells, results in the production of atypical reactive T cells (downey cells) and large LN
    • EBV acts as B-Cell mitogen; therefore, heterophile antibodies are produces
    • heterophile-positive mononucleosis, kissing disease: fatigue, fever, sore throat, lymphadenopthy and splenomegaly. Heterophile antibodies detected by agglutination of sheep or horse RBCs.
    • Hairy Oral leukoplakia: hyperproliferation of lingual epithelial cells. occurs in AIDS patients
    • Burkitt Lymphoma: cancer of maxilla, mandible (children) and abdomen (adult)
    • Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • Nasophargeal carcinoma in Asian
  6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    • infects the salivary gland epithelial cells and establishes a persistent infection in fibroblasts, epithelial cells and macrophages
    • Latency in mononuclear cells, owl-eye inclusion
    • Cytomegalic inclusion disease: #1 in utero infection characterized by jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytic purpura ("blueberry Muffin baby"), pneumonitis, CNS damage to death
    • mononucleosis: #1 cause of heterophile-negative mononucleosis
    • intestitial pneumonitis to severe systemic infection in transplanted and AIDS patient
    • CMV retinitis in AIDS patient

  7. HHV-6
    • Respiratory droplets
    • Roseola: high fever for 3-5 days (can cause seizures) followed by nonfever lacy body (diffuse macular) rash
  8. HHV-8
    • sexually
    • turns on VEGF, which plays a direct role in development of Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV patients
  9. Parvovirus
    B19
    • Naked, single stranded
    • flu-like symptoms
    • aplastic crises in sickle cell disease
    • slapped cheeks rash in children- type III hypersensivity
    • Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)
    • RBC destruction in fetus leads to hydrops fetalis and death
  10. Papillomaviridae
    • naked
    • DS circular
    • E6 and E7 inhibit tumor suppressor genes p53 and Rb
    • cutaneous warts commonly found in hands, fingers and sole of foot
    • anogenital warts are serotypes 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 35
    • positive pap smear has large nucleus w/ vacuoles surrounding the nucleus =koilocytic cells
    • Gardasil
  11. Polyomavirus
    • naked
    • ds circular
    • causes infection in immunosuppressed
    • BK: reneal disease in AIDS patients
    • JC: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in AIDS and transplant patients
  12. Adenoviridae
    • naked, penton fibers act as hemagglutinin- toxic to cells
    • Acute respiratory disease and pneumonia: spring and winter
    • pharyngoconjunctivitis: swimming pool conjunctivitis, pink eye (watery discharge; bacteria discharge is purulent), fever, sore throat
    • Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis: foreign particles in eye
    • Acute hemorrhagic cystitis: dysuria, hematuria child doesn't appear sick...acute post-strep glomerlonephritis-child appears sick
  13. Poxviridae
    • replicate in cytoplasm
    • complex enveloped
    • Largest of the virus
    • Potential warfare
    • Smallpox: variola: respiratory
    • eradicated
    • respiratory --> LN -->flu-like illness --> rash cover entire body w/in 24 hrs (all vesicles same stage)
    • Diagnosis: guarnieri bodies in infected cells
    • Molluscum contagiosum: direct contact (sexual)
    • flesh-colored dome lesions w/ central dimple
    • Vaccinia: cowpox ("milkmaid's blisters"
  14. Hepadnavirus
    • Enveloped
    • circular DS
    • causes acute and chronic hepatitis
    • vaccine available contains HBV surface antigen
    • not a retrovirus but has reverse transcriptase
    • Presence of HBsAg could mean acute or chronic
    • - chronic if presented more than 6 months
    • Presence of HBsAg + HBeAg + IgG HBcAb means acute on chronic
    • Presence of HBsAg + HBeAg + IgM HBcAb means acute
    • Preasence of Anti-HBsAb + anti-HBeAb + IgG HBcAb means recovery
    • Anti-HBsAb means immunized

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