Ch10- Medical_Terminology_PART3_Nervous_System_Dx_&_Tx_Procedures

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havenwood
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Ch10- Medical_Terminology_PART3_Nervous_System_Dx_&_Tx_Procedures
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2012-04-16 08:55:22
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Medical Terminology Health PRofessional 6e JCCC AAC130 Nervous System diagnostic Treatment Procedures
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Ch10 Medical Terminology - PART 3 - Nervous System - Dx & Tx Procedures
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  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) &
    Computerized Tomography (CT)
    • 1. Important neuroimaging tools
    • 2. Facilitiate examination of soft itssue structures of brain & spinal cord
  2. Carotid Ultrasonography
    • 1. Ultrasound of the carotid artery
    • 2. Performed to detect plaque buildup in the caratid artery to predict or diagnose an ischemic stroke
  3. Echoencephalography
    Use of ultrasound imaging to diagnose a shift in the midline structures of the brain
  4. Electroencephalography
    1. Process of recording the electrical activity of the brain thru use of electrodes attached to the scalp

    2. Electrical activity may be displayed on a monitor as brain waves.
  5. Electroencephalogram
    Record of electroencephalography

    Note: Electrical activity may be displayed on a monitor as brain waves
  6. Myelography
    A radiographic study of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium thru a lumbar pumcture
  7. Myelogram
    Record that results from myelography
  8. Lumbar Puncture
    • 1. Process of obtaining a sample of cerebrospinal fluid by inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region to withdraw fluid.
    • 2. Changes in the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid can be an indication of:
    • ......a. Injury
    • ......b. Infection
    • ......c. Disease
  9. Amobarbital
    A barbiturate used as a sedative & hypnotic
  10. Hypnotic
    Depresses the CNS & usually produces sleep
  11. Anticonvulsant
    Administered to prevent seizures such as those associated with epilepsy
  12. Barbiturates
    Class of drugs whose major action is a calming or depressed effect on the CNS
  13. Phenobarbital
    Barbiturate used as a sedative and as an anticonvulsant
  14. Sedative
    Depresses the CNS to produce calm & diminished responsiveness without producing sleep
  15. Sedation
    Effect produced by a sedative
  16. Anesthesia
    Absence of normal sensation, especially sensitivity to pain, that is induced by the administration of an anesthetic
  17. Anesthetic
    • 1. Medication used to induce anesthesia.
    • 2. There are several classes of anesthetics:
    • .....a. Topical
    • .....b. Local
    • .....c. Regional
    • .....d. General
  18. Topical Anesthetic
    • 1. Numbs only the tissue surface
    • 2. Applied as a:
    • .....a. Liquid
    • .....b. Ointment
    • .....c. Spray
  19. Local Anesthetic
    Causes loss of sensation in a limited area by injecting an anesthetic solution near that area
  20. Regional Anesthetic
    • 1. Temporary interruption of nerve conduction
    • 2. Produced by injecting anesthetic solution near the nerves to be blocked
  21. Epidural Anesthesia
    • 1. Regional anesthesia
    • 2. Produced by injecting a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine
    • 3. When administered during childbirth, it numbs the nerves from the uterus & birth passage without stopping labor
  22. Spinal Anesthesia
    • 1. Produced by injecting anesthetic into the subarachnoid space
    • 2. Subarachnoid space is located below the arachnoid membrane & above the pia mater surrounding the spinal cord.
  23. General Anesthesia
    • 1. Involves total loss of body sensation & consciousness
    • 2. Induced by anesthetic agents administered primarily by:
    • .....a. Intubation
    • .....b. Intravenous injection
  24. Lobectomy
    • Surgical removal of a portion of the brain to treat:
    • .....a. Brain cancer
    • .....b. Seizure disorders that cannot be controlled with medication
  25. Thalamotomy
    • 1. Surgical incision into the thalamus
    • 2. This procedure, which destroys brain cells, is primarily performed to quiet the tremors of Parkinson's disease
  26. Neuroplasty
    Surgical repair of a nerve or nerves
  27. Neurorrhaphy
    Surgically suturing together the ends of a severed nerve
  28. Neurotomy
    Surgical incision or dissection of a nerve
  29. Anxiety Disorders
    • Mental conditions characterized by:
    • 1. Excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations
    • 2. Fear that is out of proportion to the real danger in a situation
    • 3. Without treatment, an anxiety disorder can become chronic
  30. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • 1. Characterized by chronic anxiety plus exaggerated worry & tension even when there is little or nothing to provoke these feeings.
    • 2. Physical symptoms associated with this condition include:
    • .....a. Muscle tension
    • .....b. Sleep disturbance
    • .....3. Restlessnes
  31. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • 1. Anxiety disorder
    • 2. Characterized by:
    • .....a. Recurrent, unwanted obsessions
    • .....b. And/or recurrent compulsions
    • 3. Repetitive compulsive behaviors, such as hand washing, are often performed with the hope of :
    • .....a. Preventing obsessive thoughts
    • .....b. Making obsessive thoughts go away.
    • 3. Performing these so-called 'rituals' provides only temporary relief, and not performing them markedly increases anxiety
  32. Panic Disorder
    1. Anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected & repeated episodes known as panic attacks.

    2. These attacks are caused by an unwarranted arousal of the sumpathetic nervous system, which is the body's fight or flight response to danger
  33. Panic attack
    • 1. Characterized by a group of intense emotional feelings that include:
    • .....a. Apprehension
    • .....b. Fearfulness
    • .....c. Terror
    • 2. These emotions are accompanied by physical symptoms that can include:
    • .....a. Shortness of breath
    • .....b. Feelings of unreality
    • .....c. Sweating
    • .....d. Heart Palpitations
    • .....e. Chest pain
    • .....f. Choking sensations
  34. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    • 1. Symptoms include:
    • .....a. Diminished responsiveness to stimuli
    • .....b. Anxiety
    • .....c. Sleep disorders
    • .....d. Persistent reliving of the event
    • .....e. Difficulty concentrating

    • 2. May develop after an event involving actual or threatened death or injury to the individual or someone else during which the person felt intense:
    • .....a. Fear
    • .....b. Helplessness
    • .....c. Horror

    • 3. This disorder can be caused by:
    • .....a. Military service
    • .....b Natural disaster
    • .....c. Hostage istuation
  35. Phobia
    • 1. Persistent irrational fear of a specific thing or situation
    • 2. The fear is strong enough to:
    • .....a. Cause significant distress
    • .....b. Interfere with functioning
    • .....c. Lead to the avoidance of the thing or siuation that causes this reation
    • 3. There are countless types of phobia
    • 4. Naming: Named by adding '-phobia' to the name of the object
  36. Agoraphobia
    • 1. Excessive fear of situation in which having a panic attack seems:
    • .....a. Likely
    • .....b. Dangerous
    • .....c. Embarrassing
    • 2. Example: Person who fears leaving the familiar setting of home and going out in public because social situations may provoke anxiety
  37. Arachnophobia
    Excessive fear of spiders
  38. Claustrophobia
    Abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces
  39. Autism (autistic disorders)
    • 1. Group of conditions in which a young child:
    • .....a. Cannot develop normal social relationships
    • .....b. Compulsively follows repetitive routines
    • .....c. Frequently has poor communication skills
  40. Asperger's Syndrome
    • 1. Less severely affected subgroup of the autism disorder spectrum.
    • 2. Individuals with Asperger's usually have normal or above normal intelligence but are impaired in:
    • .....a. Social interactions
    • .....b. Nonverbal communication
  41. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
    • 1. Characterized by inappropriate for developmental age behaviors including:
    • .....a. Short attention span
    • .....b. Impulsive behavior

    2. May persist into adulthood
  42. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    1. Sometimes used in talking about ADD with a consistently high level of activity.

    2. May persist into adulthood.
  43. Hyperactivity
    • 1. Restlessness or a continuing excess of movement
    • 2. In combination with ADD it is sometimes known as ADHD.
    • 3. May persist into adulthood.
  44. Dyslexia (Developmental Reading Disorder)
    1. Learning disability characterized by substandard reading achievement

    2. Due to the inability of the brain to process symbols
  45. Learning Disabilities
    1. Disorders found in children of normal intelligence

    • 2. Children have difficulties in learning specific skills such as:
    • .....a. Processing language
    • .....b. Grasping mathematical concepts
  46. Mental Retardation
    • Diagnosis is based on three (3) criteria:
    • 1. Significant below-average intellectual functioning
    • 2. Siginificant deficits in adaptive functioning
    • 3. Onset during the developmental period of life, which is before the age of 18.
  47. Dissociative Disorders
    Occurs when normal thought is separated from consciousness.
  48. Dissociative Identify Disorder
    • 1. Formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder
    • 2. Mental illness characterized by presence of two or more distinct personalities
    • 3. Each personality has its own characteristics, which appear to exist within the same individual
  49. Factitious Disorder
    1. Condition in which an individual acts as if he or she has physical or mental illness when not really sick.
  50. 2. Visible symptoms are self-inflected
  51. 3. Motivation is the patient's desire to receive attention and sympathy.
  52. Factitious Disorder by Proxy
    1. Form of child abuse

    • 2. Mentally ill parent seems to be very concerned about child's well-being but will falsify the child's illness by:
    • .....a. Making up or inducing symptoms in the child
    • .....b. Then seeking medical treatment and/or surgery, for the child
  53. Impulse-control Disorders
    1. Group of psychiatric disorders

    2. Characterized by the inability to resist an impulse despite potential negative consequences.

    • 3. Examples include:
    • .....a. Compulsive shopping
    • .....b. Compulsive gambling
    • .....c. Compulsive stealing
    • .....d. Compulsive fire-setting
    • .....e. Compulsive pulling out of one's own hair
  54. Kleptomania
    • Disorder characterized by repeatedly stealing objects neither for:
    • .....a. Personal use nor for
    • .....b. Monetary value
  55. Pyromania
    Disorder characterized by repeated, deliberate fire setting
  56. Trichotillomania
    Disorder characterized by the repeated pulling out of one's own hair
  57. Bipolar Disorder
    1. Condition characterized by cycles of severe mood changes

    2. Changes shift from highs (manic behavior) to severe lows (depression)

    • 3. Affect person's:
    • .....a. Attitude
    • .....b. Energy
    • .....c. Ability to function
  58. Manic Behavior
    • 1. An abnormally elevated mood state, including:
    • .....a. Inappropriate elation
    • .....b. Increased irritabiity
    • .....c. Severe insomnia
    • .....d. Poor judgment
    • .....e. Inappropriate social behavior
  59. Depression
    1. Common mood disorder

    • 2. Characterized by:
    • .....a. Lethargy
    • .....b. Sadness
    • .....c. Loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities

    • 3. Severe deprssion may lead to:
    • .....a. Feelings of worthlessness
    • .....b. Thoughts of death or suicide
  60. Dysthymia (Dysthymic Disorder)
    1. Low-grade chronic depression

    • 2. Symptoms are:
    • .....a. Present on a majority of days for 2 or more years
    • .....b. Milder than those of severe depression
  61. Seasonal Affective Disorder
    • 1. Seasonal bout of depression
    • 2. Associated with the decrease in hours of daylight during the winter months.
  62. Personality Disorder
    1. Chronic pattern of inner experiences & behavior

    2. Causes serious problems with relationships & work.

    • 3. Pattern:
    • .....a. Is pervasive & inflexible
    • .....b. Has onset in adolescence or early adulthood
    • .....c. Is stable over time
    • ....d. Leads to distress or impairment

    • 4. Examples:
    • .....a. Antisocial personality disorder
    • .....b. Borderline personality order
    • .....c. Narcissistic personality disorder
  63. Antisocial Personality Disorder
    1. Pattern of disregard for, & violation of, the rights of others

    2. This pattern brings the individual into continuous conflict with society.
  64. Borderline Personality Disorder
    • Characterized by:
    • .....a. Impulsive actions, often with the potential for self-harm
    • .....b. Mood instability
    • ,.....c. Chaotic relationships
  65. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    • Pattern of:
    • 1. Extreme preoccupation with the self
    • 2. Complete lack of empathy for others
  66. Psychotic Disorder
    • Characterized by:
    • .....1. Loss of contact with reality
    • .....2. Deterioration of normal social functioning
  67. Catatonic Behavior
    • Marked by:
    • .....1. Lack of responsiveness
    • .....2. Stupor
    • .....3. Tendency to remain in a fixed posture
  68. Delusion
    False personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidene to the contrary.

    Note: The belief is not one ordinarily accepted by other members of the individual's culture or religious faiith
  69. Hallucination
    Sensory perception (sight, sound, touch, smell, taste) experienced in the absence of an external stimulation.
  70. Schizophrenia
    1. Psychotic disorder

    • 2. Characterized by:
    • .....a. Withdrawal from reality
    • .....b. Illogical patterns of thinking
    • .....c. Delusions
    • .....d. Hallucinations

    3. Accompanied by varying degrees of other emotional, behavioral, or intellectual disturbances
  71. Somatoform Disorder
    Characterized by physical complaints or concerns about one's body that are out of proportion to any physical findings or disease.
  72. Conversion Disorder
    Characterized by serious temporary or ongoing changes in function, such as paralysis or blindness, that are triggered by psychological factors rather than by any physical cause.
  73. Hypochondriasis
    Characterized by fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation & reassurance.

    2. A person exhibiting this syndrome is known as a hypochondriac
  74. Hypochondriac
    Person exhibiting symptoms of hypochondriasis.
  75. Malingering
    Characterized by intentional creation of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms.

    2. In contrast to a factitous disorder, this condition is motivated by incentives such as avoiding work.
  76. Substance Abuse
    1. Addictive use of tobacco, alcohol, medications, or illegal drugs.

    • 2. This abuse leads to:
    • .....a. Significant impairment in functioning
    • .....b. Danger to one's self or others
    • .....c. Recurrent legal and/or interpersonal problems
  77. Alcoholism
    Chronic alcohol dependence with specific signs & symptoms upsn withdrawal.
  78. Withdrawl
    1. A psychological or physical syndrome (or both)
  79. 2. Caused by the abrupt cessation of the use of alcohol or a drug in an addicted individual.
  80. Delirium Tremens
    1. Disorder involving sudden & severe mental changes or seizures

    2. Caused by aburptly stopping use of alcohol.
  81. Antidepressant
    1. Administered to prevent or relieve depression

    • 2. Some of these medications are also used to:
    • .....a. Treat obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • .....b. Treat generalized anxiety disorders
    • .....c. Relieve chronic pain
  82. Antipsychotic Drug
    1. Administered to treat symptoms of severe disorders of thinking and mood

    • 2. Associated with neurological & psychiatric illnesses such as:
    • .....a. Schizophrenia
    • .....b. Mania
    • .....c. Delusional disorders
  83. Anxiolytic Drug (antianxiety drug or tranquilizer)
    • Administered to:
    • .....1. Temporariy relieve anxiety
    • .....2. Reduce tension
  84. Mood Stabilizing Drug
    Used to treat mood instability & bipolar disorders

    Example: Lithium
  85. Psychotropic Drug
    1. Acts primarily on the CNS

    • 2. Produces temporary changes affecting the:
    • .....a. Mind
    • .....b. Emotions
    • .....c. Behavior

    • 3. These drugs are used as medications to:
    • .....a. Control pain
    • .....b. Treat narcolepsy
    • .....c. Treat attention disorders
  86. Stimulant
    • 1. Works by increasing activity in certain areas of the brain to increase:
    • .....a. Concentration
    • .....b. Wakefulness

    • 2. Drug therapies using stimulants have been effective in treating:
    • .....a. ADHD
    • .....b. Narcolepsy

    • 3. Overuse of stimulants can cause:
    • .....a. Sleeplessness
    • .....b. Palpatations

    Example: Caffeine
  87. Psychoanalysis
    • Based on the idea that mental disorders have underlying causes stemming from childhood that can only be overcome by gaining insight into one's:
    • .....a. Feelings
    • .....b. Patterns of behavior
  88. Behavioral Therapy
    • Focuses on changing behavior by:
    • .....1. Identifying problem behaviors
    • .....2. Replacing them with appropriate behaviors
    • .....3. Using rewards or other consequences to make the changes
  89. Cognitive Therapy
    1. Focuses on changing cognitions or thoughts that are affecting a person's emotions & actions.

    • 2. These are identified & then challenged through:
    • .....a. Logic
    • .....b. Gathering evidence
    • .....c. Testing in action

    3. The goal is to change problematic beliefs.
  90. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
    Combines techniques of cognitive & behavioral therapy
  91. Hypnotherapy
    1. Use of hypnosis to produce a relaxed state of focused attention

    2. In this state the patient may be more willing to believe & act on suggestions

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