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What were Henry's main aims in foreign policy?
- More defensive than predecessors - because he was a usurper - Henry had to be constantly prepared against Yorkist threats.
- To enhance trade - to financially secure the throne
- To protect his northern border
- More inclined to peace (as Polydore Vergil wrote) - needed to secure non-intervention from foreign powers.
- Foreign policy was less important than domestic matters to Henry.
What are the 3 phases into which Henry's foreign policy can be split into?
- 1485 - 1492 [Developing diplomacy]
- 1493 - 1502 [Successful diplomacy]
- 1503 - 1509 [Changing diplomacy]
When did Anne of Beaujeu (acting as regent for Charles VIII) invade Brittany? Who supported Brittany and what was Henry's position at this point?
- Maximilian and Ferdinand of Aragon supplied troos to help defend it.
- Francis Duke of Brittany appealed to Henry for support too. This placed Henry in a dilemma.
Why did military intervention seem necessary for Henry in the Brittany Crisis when Anne of Beaujeu (acting as regent for Charles VIII) attacked Burgundy?
- Acquisition of Brittany would increase French power greatly - would greatly increase their potential to invade England and harry English trading ships. Because it would leave France with control of almost the entire southern shore of the Channel.
- Henry also owed a debt of gratitude to Brittany for they provided for him through all his years of exile.
However, what was the other side of the dilemma in the Brittany crisis for Henry?
- Henry owed France for providing for him in the final period of his exile, and he also received substantial French support for his own successful invasion.
- Henry did not want to antagonise the French.
- Full-scale war would seriously strain his finances.
What did Henry do initially in this Brittany Crisis then? What happened as a result?
- Sent Lord Scales and a few hundred men to aid Francis of Brittany.
- However, Bretons refused to compromise, so Henry disowned Scales and renewed his truce with the French.
- Bretons defeated by France at battle of St. Aubin du Corrnier. Duke signed Treaty of Sable (1488) in which he affectively acknowledged himself the vassal of the French king.
What treaty did Henry sign with Spain? When? What were the terms?
- Treaty of Medina del Campo, 1489
- Henry's son Arthur was to marry Catherine of Aragon
- Ferdinand and Isabella would not aid Henry's rebels.
- If either country went to war with France, the other was to offer assistance.
- Also, some more trade rights between the 2 countries which increased trade.
After Francis died, and Henry signed the treaty with Spain, Henry signed what treaty and with whom? What happened after?
- Henry signed the Treaty of Redon with Brittany in which Henry promised to send 6000 men, and Bretons promised to pay for them.
- Henry send men, but were let down by allies.
- Bretons accepted defeat and Anne married Charles VIII. Brittany's independence was over.
When did Henry launch an attack on France? Where did he lay siege to?
- 1492 - with any army of around 26,000
- Laid siege to Boulogne
What was the outcome of Henry's attack on France in 1492?
- Fortunately, eager to turn his attention to Italy, Charles was keen to be rid of Henry and so opened up negotiations.
- Treaty of Etaples of 1492 signed.
- Henry received pension of 159,000 pounds at 5000p/a
- Charles promised not to aid Henry's rebels
Outline Henry VII's success in foreign policy between 1485 - 1492.
- Henry managed to make an alliance with Spain with the Treaty of Medina del Campo 1489
- His invasion of France turned out to be successful, signing the Treaty of Etaples, where not only did Henry receive a sizeable financial reward, but also prevented French aiding of Warbeck.
- Henry did not lose face, and showed how England was a force to be reckoned with.
- Henry managed to not wage war, and secured alliances with France and Spain.
What were Henry's failures in foreign policy between 1485 - 1492?
- Brittany's independence was over - The French virtually controlled the southern shore of the Channel.
- No glorious victory - although it can be argued that this criteria of kingship was already fulfilled by the victory at Bosworth 1485.
1493 - 1502
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What did Henry do in 1496 and with whom? What conditions did Henry attach and what does this show about Henry?
- Henry joined the Holy League, which consisted of Ferdinand, Maximilian, the Pope, Venice and Milan against France and Charles VIII's pursuit in Italy.
- Joined only on condition that England would not have to go to war against France.
- This showed Henry's diplomatic skill and this enabled him to make alliances with Italian forces, while still not antagonising the French.
In the same year 1496, Henry signed what with France and Burgundy?
- France - commercial agreement
- Burgundy - Magnus Intercursus - which was a commercial agreement with Burgundy and to restore Burgundian trade.
- Very much in favour of the English - not entirely realistic and was very much one-sided.
- Once again, Henry shows diplomatic skill - he was able to juggle alliances with both France and the Holy League.
When did Henry sign the truce with Scotland? What was this called?
- Truce of Ayton, in 1497
- Sealed in 1503 by marriage of Henry's elder daughter, Margaret, to James IV of Scotland.
- Secured northern border of England as well, which was one of Henry's aims!
What did Henry do in 1493 to the Netherlands? What does this highlight about Henry's priorities?
- Henry temporarily disrupted England's cloth trades with the Netherlands, because Phillip was offering Warbeck aid.
- This highlights how dynastic threats were more important to Henry than foreign trade.
What year is seen as Henry's high point in foreign relations?
What happened in 1451 in terms of foreign relations?
- Marriage of Arthur and Catherine of Aragon
- Catherine arrived with 100,000 crowns of her dowry.
- Catherine's sister's marriage to Philip of Burgundy provided Henry with another possible ally, Burgundy, should he need it.
1503 - 1509
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List the 3 deaths and when from 1452 that started to change matters for the worse for Henry.
- Prince Arthur's death in 1502
- Elizabeth of York's death in 1503
- Isabella of Spain death in 1504 (Ferdinand also on the marriage market - competition. )
What did Ferdinand and Isabella start to do within weeks of Arthur's death in 1502? What was one problem?
- Negotiate Catherine of Aragon's marriage with young Prince Henry.
- However, the Pope asked for a formal dispensation to allow this marriage to occur. Document arrived in 1504, but by then, the diplomatic situation had changed.
What consequences did Isabella's death have? Why wasn't this good for Henry?
- Henry and Ferdinand became rivals in the marriage stakes.
- More significantly, the relationship between Ferdinand and Philip of Burgundy deteriorated, because Ferdinand wanted to act as regent to Joanna (in order to hold on to all of Spain) whereas Joanna's husband, Philip did not allow this.
- This was not good for Henry because Spain and Burgundy were his major allies.
In 1505, Henry started to forge better relations with whom? And in the hope of what? Why was this bad for Henry's relations with Ferdinand?
- Started to forge better relations with Burgundy, in the hope of persuading Philip to hand over Edmund de la Pole and to act as insurance policy in case relations with France turned hostile.
- Immediately made Ferdinand hostile towards Henry, as Ferdinand had a quarrel with Philip now, due to Isabella's death. Also fact that Henry lent money to Philip to go to Spain and to claim his wife's inheritance.
How did Henry irritate Ferdinand from 1505?
- Henry became very pro-Philip (Burgundy)
- Henry attempted to marry Margaret of Savoy, Philip's sister, which jeopardised match between young Henry and Catherine of Aragon.
- Henry also kept Catherine's dowry despite Ferdinand's requests to either complete marriage agreement or return the bride and her dowry to Spain.
What happened in 1506 that enabled Henry to secure the capture of Edmund de la Pole? What else happened meanwhile (1505)?
- Philip and Joanna had to take refuge in England from a storm.
- Henry seized this opportunity and negotiated a treaty by which Edmund de la Pole was surrendered to England and you Henry would marry one of Philip's relatives.
- Meanwhile, Ferdinand allied with France by marrying the French king's niece, Germaine de Foix in 1505.
Later in 1506, what happened that further worsened Henry's position?
- September 1506, Philip suddenly died.
- As Joanna supposedly went mad through grief, this gave Ferdinand the excuse he needed to take back Castile.
Henry tried to marry who but was refused? So he tried to marry who? What happened then?
- Henry tried to marry Margaret of Savoy, but was refused.
- So, Henry courted Joanna (because he wanted to restore relations with Ferdinand)- however, Ferdinand, in a strong position, refused to allow this marriage and also refused to send remainder of Catherine of Aragon's dowry as Henry requested.
Henry allied with whom in 1507 by a proposed marriage of whom?
- Proposed marriage between Archduke Charles and Mary, Henry VII's youngest daughter.
Also what did Henry do with the Burgundians in 1507/08? (need to check date) What else happened?
- Henry agreed a new trading regime with Burgundy, which was more favourable to the Burgundians.
- Henry also offered young Henry in marriage to niece of French king (Margaret of Angouleme)
What was Henry's main achievement in foreign policy?
- Treaty of Medina del Campo in 1489
- This affirmed the Tudor dynasty as accepted within Europe and it also opened up possibility of an effective anti-French alliance.
- Henry's skill here, of being able to identify the potential of such an alliance and was able to make it a reality through his diplomatic skills.
In summery, Henry coped with ______ events, such as those provoked by ____ of key people - very well, showing ______ and ________. When he died, England was on generally good terms with most European countries, and his ______ was secure and recognised. And all of this had been done with _____ ______ ____.
- flexibility and resourcefulness
- minimal financial cost
What was the League of Cambrai? When was this formed, and what was the significance?
An anti-Venetian alliance between Pope, Maximilian, Ferdinand, France. England left out, but, this meant their attention was diverted to Italy, and Henry was probably grateful for the respite that it brought.
Outline briefly the events that dictated Henry's foreign policy with Scotland?
- 1495 - glory-hungry James IV come of age; Warbeck arrive in Scotland and greeted with royal welcome and married to James' cousin, Lady Gordon.
- 1496 - Military support for Warbeck's invasion of France which was a failure - weak, with little support from Scottish nobility.
- 1497 - Cornish rebellion, and then Truce of Ayton
- 1502 - Treaty of Perpetual Peace in which Margaret, Henry's elder daughter, was betrothed to James IV.
- 1503 - marriage between James IV and Margaret
- However, border-raids, continued Franco-Scottish alliance and expansion of James' navy led to strained relations. Henry only stabilised and did not secure the northern border.