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2012-04-15 14:42:17
anatomy respiratory system

Respiratory System
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  1. The respiratory system has __________ basic functions.
  2. Which of the following is NOT a basic function of the respiratory system?
    removing waste products from the blood
  3. The __________ carries trapped particles and mucus toward the pharynx.
    mucus escalator
  4. Mucus produced in goblet cells and filtration in the nasal passages, bronchi, and bronchioles form the __________, which protects the delicate exchange surfaces.
    respiratory defense system
  5. Which of the following is a part of the upper respiratory system?
    internal nares
    paranasal sinuses
    nasal passages
  6. There are __________ pairs of nasal conchae.
  7. Air enters the nasal passages through the
    external nares.
  8. There are __________ regions of the pharynx.
  9. The oropharynx
    extends between the soft palate and the base of the tongue.
  10. The superior part of the pharynx is the
  11. The large, unpaired cartilages in the larynx are the
  12. The superior of two pairs of folds found in the larynx are called the
    ventricular folds.
  13. Sound production at the larynx is called
  14. The intrinsic laryngeal musculature
    • regulates tension in the vocal folds.
    • opens and closes the glottis.
  15. The trachealis is
    a band of smooth muscle connecting the ends of tracheal cartilages.
  16. The carina is
    a ridge marking the origin of the bronchi.
  17. There are __________ lobes in the right lung and __________ lobes in the left lung.
    three, two
  18. The walls of the primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi contain progressively __________ amounts of cartilage and __________ amounts of smooth muscle.
    lesser, greater
  19. The primary bronchi divide to form secondary bronchi, also known as __________ bronchi.
  20. Approximately __________ terminal bronchioles are supplied by each tertiary bronchus.
  21. Sympathetic stimulation leads to __________ of the bronchioles.
  22. Parasympathetic stimulation leads to __________ of the bronchioles.
  23. Each lung contains about __________ alveoli, giving the lungs a spongy appearance.
    150 million
  24. Respiratory bronchioles connect to alveoli through
    alveolar ducts.
  25. The lining of the alveolus is coated with an oily secretion called
  26. Particles that reach the alveoli are consumed by
    • macrophages.
    • dust cells.
    • AKA alveolar macrophages
  27. Surfactant
    decreases surface tension.
  28. The respiratory membrane consists of __________ parts.
  29. The innermost layer of the respiratory membrane adjacent to the inspired air is
    squamous epithelia of alveoli.
  30. Alveolar capillaries are primary sources of
    angiotensin-converting enzyme.
  31. If you increase the volume of a gas, the pressure
  32. All the partial pressures of a gas added together are __________ the pressure exerted by the gas mixture.
    equal to
  33. Pressure differences __________ the movement of gas molecules into and out of solution.
  34. Because the partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs is greater than the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the lungs, __________ oxygen should dissolve in the blood __________.
    more, more rapidly
  35. The most important inspiratory respiratory muscle(s) is (are) the
    • diaphragm.
    • external intercostals.
  36. The rectus abdominis and other abdominal muscles play __________ role in forced exhalation.
    an important
  37. Contraction of the diaphragm __________ the intrapulmonary pressure, producing __________.
    decreases, inhalation
  38. The tidal volume is
    the amount of air moving into or out of the lungs at rest in a single respiratory cycle.
  39. Pulmonary ventilation is
    the amount of air entering the lungs in one minute.
  40. Tidal volume averages
    500 ml.
  41. Alveolar ventilation is
    the amount of air reaching the alveoli in one minute.
  42. Vital capacity in males averages
    4.8 liters.
  43. Residual volume averages __________ in males.
    1.2 liters.
  44. Total lung volume in males averages
    500 ml.
  45. Combined alveolar surface area at peak inspiration is about
    140 square meters.
  46. Alveolar Po2 averages __________ mm Hg, while the pulmonary capillary Po2 averages __________ mm Hg.
    100, 40
  47. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in pulmonary capillaries averages __________ mm Hg, while alveolar pressures are __________ mm Hg.
    45, 40
  48. Lower pH __________ the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin.
  49. Adult hemoglobin has an oxygen affinity __________ that of fetal hemoglobin.
    lower than
  50. __________ percent of the carbon dioxide molecules in venous blood are bound to hemoglobin.
  51. The homeostatic mechanisms involved in maintaining the delivery and removal of respiratory gases are
    • local exchanges in blood flow and delivery.
    • variations in the rate and depth of respirations.
  52. As blood flows toward the alveoli, it is directed toward lobules in which the Po2 is
    relatively high.
  53. When Pco2 declines, bronchioles
  54. The respiratory centers of the brain are located in the
    • pons.
    • medulla oblongata.
  55. The pneumotaxic and apneustic centers __________ the respiratory rhythmicity centers.
    adjust the output of
  56. Respiratory reflexes are modified by
    • stretch receptors found in the lungs.
    • chemoreceptors sensitive to CO2 and O2 levels.
    • pressoreceptors in the aorta and carotid sinuses.
  57. The Hering-Breuer reflexes include the
    • deflation reflex.
    • inflation reflex.
  58. All of the carbon dioxide from the tissues binds to and is transported by hemoglobin to the lungs.
  59. Contraction of the diaphragm decreases the volume of the pleural cavity and leads to expiration.
  60. According to the relationship known as Boyle's law, as the volume of the lungs increases the pressure of the gas in the lungs _____
  61. Diaphragmatic breathing is also known as deep breathing, while costal breathing is also referred to as _____ breathing.
  62. Most of the oxygen in the blood is carried bound to _____ molecules.
  63. The term chloride shift refers to the exchange of extracellular chloride ions for intracellular _____ ions across the membrane of a red blood cell.
  64. A condition of ventilation known as ______ will gradually lead to hypocapnia.
  65. The cricoid cartilage can be felt in the neck and it is commonly called the Adam's apple.
  66. The diaphragm is the only muscle involved in respiration.
  67. The level of surfactant production is important to the compliance of the lungs.
  68. Chemoreceptors on the ventrolateral surface of the medulla respond to changes in the
    pH and secondarily pCO2.
  69. The Hering-Breuer reflexes protect against
    overexpansion of the lungs during forced breathing.
  70. Which of the following organs or structures is uppermost in the respiratory system?
  71. The largest of the laryngeal cartilages which form most of the anterior and lateral walls of the larynx is the
    thyroid cartilage.
  72. Each of the following factors affects the pitch of the sound produced by the vocal cords except one. Identify the exception.
    length of the vocal cords
    tension in the vocal cords
    diameter of the vocal cords
    age of the vocal cords
    age of the vocal cords
  73. Each of the following is part of the respiratory membrane except one. Identify the exception.
    the interstitial space between the alveolus and the closest capillary
  74. Each of the following is part of the process of external respiration except one. Identify the exception.
    gas absorption and release by living cells
  75. Which of these is not a reason why gas exchange at the respiratory membrane is efficient?
    the total surface area is large.
    the gases are water soluble.
    blood flow and airflow are coordinated.the differences in partial pressure across the respiratory membrane are substantial.
    the distances involved are small.
    the gases are water soluble.
  76. An example of a local factor that regulates gas transport and alveolar function would be
    changes in lung perfusion.
  77. Which of the following statements concerning respiratory centers in the brain is incorrect?
    There is reciprocal inhibition between the neurons involved with inhalation and exhalation.
    The apneustic center provides continual stimulation to the dorsal regulatory group.
    Brain centers controlling respiration are found only in the medulla oblongata.
    The basic pattern of respiration reflects the cyclic interaction between the dorsal regulatory group (DRG) and the ventral regulatory group (VRG).
    Brain centers controlling respiration are found only in the medulla oblongata.
  78. Wich respiratory volume represents the amount of air you move in and out of your lungs during quiet breathing?
    Tidal volume
  79. Which of these values would you expect to decrease in an individual with asthma or pneumonia?
    Expiratory reserve volume
    More than one of these choices would be affected by asthma or pneumonia.
    Vital capacity
    Minimal volume
    More than one of these choices would be affected by asthma or pneumonia.
  80. Arrange the following airways into the order that air would pass through going from the larynx to the alveoli.
    • trachea
    • primary bronchi
    • secondary bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • terminal bronchioles
    • respiratory bronchioles
  81. IRV
    The amount of air that can be drawn into the lungs after a normal quiet respiratory cycle
  82. ERV
    The amount of air the can be forcibly expelled after a normal quiet respiratory cycle
  83. Vital capacity
    The maximum amount of air moved into and out of the lungs in a single respiratory cycle
  84. Total lung capacity
    VC + residual volume
  85. Residual volume
    The amount of air that remains in the lungs even after a maximal exhalation
  86. Resting tidal volume
    The amount of air moving into or out of the lungs during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions
  87. Dalton's Law
    Each gas contributes to the total pressure in proportion to its relative abundance
  88. Partial pressure
    The pressure contributed by a single gas in a mixture of gases
  89. Henry's law
    The amount of a particular gas in solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas.
  90. Pressure laws
    The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the size of the container in which it is held.
  91. The primary functions of the respiratory system are
    • to move air to and from the exchange surfaces
    • to provide an area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood
    • to protect respiratory surfaces from dehydration and environmental variations
  92. The "patrol force" of the alveolar epithelium involved with phagocytosis is comprised primarily of:
    alveolar macrophages
  93. The difference between the true and false vocal cords is that the false vocal cords:
    play no part in sound production
  94. Structures in the trachea that prevent its collapse or overexpansion as pressures change in the respiratory system are the:
    C-shaped tracheal cartilages
  95. If food particles or liquids manage to touch the surfaces of the ventricular or vocal folds the:
    coughing reflex will be triggered
  96. The trachea allows for the passage of large masses of food through the esophagus due to:
    the C-shaped tracheal cartilages
  97. Dilation and relaxation of the bronchioles are possible because of the presence of:
    bands of smooth muscle encircling the lumen
  98. The serous membrane in contact with the lung is the:
    visceral pleura
  99. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body's interstitial fluid and the external environment is:
    external respiration
  100. Breathing, which involves the physical movement of air into and out of the lungs is:
    pulmonary ventilation
  101. Air enters the respiratory passageways when the pressure inside the lungs is lower than the:
    atmospheric pressure
  102. During inspiration there will be an increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity and a(n):
    increasing lung volume, decreasing intrapulmonary pressure
  103. During expiration there is a(n):
    increase in intrapulmonary pressure
  104. A necessary feature for normal gas exchange in the alveoli is:
    for the alveoli to remain dry
  105. When the partial pressure difference is greater across the respiratory membrane, the rate of gas diffusion is:
  106. The efficiency of pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary circulation occurs because:
    blood flow and air flow are coordinated
  107. If the partial pressure of oxygen is lower in the pulmonary capillaries than in the alveolus, O2 will diffuse:
    out of the alveolus into the pulmonary capillary
  108. Each molecule of hemoglobin has the capacity to carry __________ atoms of oxygen (O2).
  109. What percentage of total oxygen (O2) is carried within red blood cells chemically bound to hemoglobin?
  110. Each hemoglobin molecule consists of:
    four globular protein subunits, each containing one heme unit
  111. When each hemoglobin molecule binds with four molecules of oxygen, the end product is:
  112. Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood by:
    • conversion to a molecule of carbonic acid
    • binding to a protein part of the hemoglobin molecule
    • dissolving in plasma
    • All of the above
  113. An elevated body temperature will:
    accelerate respiration
  114. The initiation of inspiration originates with discharge of DRG neurons in the:
  115. Reflexes important in regulating the forced ventilations that accompany strenuous exercise are known as the:
    Hering-Breuer reflexes
  116. The paranasal sinuses include:
    frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary
  117. A rise in arterial Pco2 elevates cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) carbon dioxide levels and stimulates the chemoreceptive neurons of the medulla to produce:
  118. The primary function of pulmonary ventilation is to maintain adequate:
    alveolar ventilation
  119. The purpose of the fluid in the pleural cavity is to:
    reduce friction between the parietal and visceral pleura
  120. When the lungs are in the resting position, the factor that opposes their collapse is:
    an intrapulmonary pressure of 760 mm Hg
  121. If a person is stabbed in the chest and the thoracic wall is punctured but the lung is not penetrated:
    the lungs will collapse
  122. The most important factor determining airway resistance is:
    airway radius
  123. The sympathetic division of the ANS causes __________ of airway smooth muscle; therefore, resistance is __________.
    relaxation; decreased
  124. The substance administered during an asthmatic attack to decrease resistance via airway dilation is:
  125. Decreased amounts of CO2 concentrations in the bronchioles cause:
    an increase in bronchiolar constriction
  126. The volume of alveolar air and capillary blood in the right proportion to each alveolus produces:
    lung efficiency
  127. If a person is breathing 15 times a minute and has a tidal volume of 500 ml, the total minute respiratory volume is:
    7500 ml/min
  128. The residual volume is the volume of air:
    which remains in lungs after maximal expiration
  129. The maximum amount of air moved in and out during a single breath is:
    vital capacity
  130. If a person is breathing 12 times per minute and the tidal volume is 500 ml, what is the alveolar ventilation rate?
    4200 ml/min
  131. The most effective means of increasing alveolar ventilation is:
    breathe slowly and deeply
  132. In "respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn," the administering of adrenal steroid serves to:
    enhance surfactant-synthesizing maturation
  133. The partial pressure of O2 at sea level is:
    160 mm Hg
  134. It is important that free H+ resulting from dissociation of H2CO3 combine with hemoglobin to reduce the possibility of:
    an acidic condition within the blood
  135. In the pulmonary capillaries the bicarbonate ion is always returned to the:
  136. If you desired to control the rate of respiration voluntarily you might:
    hold your breath
  137. One of the early symptoms of emphysema is:
    a reduced expiratory volume
  138. As the number of molecules of gas dissolved in a liquid increases:
    the pressure of the gas increases
  139. Movement of air into and out of the lungs is accomplished by the process of __________, while all movement of gases across membranes is by __________.
    bulk flow; passive diffusion
  140. The correct sequential transport of O2 from the tissue capillaries to O2 consumption in cells is:
    erythrocytes, plasma, interstitial fluid, cells