biolab140

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Author:
itzlinds
ID:
147750
Filename:
biolab140
Updated:
2012-04-21 21:45:13
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urinary system urinalysis
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urinary system and urinalysis
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  1. The minor calyx of the kidney is labeled by the letter _____. (0.25pts)



    A
    B
    C
    D
    E
    F
    D






  2. The renal medulla is labeled by the letter _____. (0.25pts)



    A
    B
    C
    D
    E
    F
    F




  3. The collecting duct of the nephron is labeled by the letter _____. (0.25pts)



    A
    B
    C
    D
    E
    F
    E






  4. The renal corpuscle is labeled by the letter _____. (0.25pts)



    A
    B
    C
    D
    E
    F
    C
  5. The juxtaglomerular apparatus (JG apparatus) is composed of specialized cells in the _______ and the ______. (0.5pts)



    glomerulus; efferent arteriole
    distal convoluted tubule; afferent arteriole
    proximal convoluted tubule; afferent arteriole
    proximal convoluted tubule; glomerulus
    collecting duct; renal corpuscle
    distal convoluted tubule; afferent arteriole
  6. Where does fluid filtration take place? (0.25pts)

    distal convoluted tubule
    renal corpuscle
    collecting duct
    proximal convoluted tubule
    nephron loop
    JG apparatus
    renal corpuscle
  7. Most fluid that is filtered into the nephron tubule is reabsorbed. Where does the majority of reabsorption take place? (0.25pts)

    JG apparatus
    collecting duct
    distal convoluted tubule
    renal corpuscle
    proximal convoluted tubule
    nephron loop
    proximal convoluted tubule
  8. Jill is in a clinical study to determine how the latest blood pressure medication, MelloOut, is handled by the body. As part of the study, researchers recorded the following data from Jill: [MelloOut] in urine = 100 mg/mL; [MelloOut] in plasma = 4 mg/mL; urine flow rate = 2 mL/min; what is the renal clearance of MelloOut? (0.5pts)



    200 mL/min
    25 mL/min
    100 mL/min
    800 mL/min
    12.5 mL/min
    50 mL/min
    50 mL/min
  9. Aldosterone is released in response to increased __________ and works to _______ blood pressure. (0.5pts)

    ADH; decrease
    ANP; increase
    renin; decrease
    angiotensin II; increase
    angiotensin II; increase
  10. Atrial naturetic peptide (ANP) is secreted by the ______ and works to ______ blood pressure. (0.5pts)

    liver; increase
    heart; increase
    kidneys; decrease
    heart; decrease
    kidneys; increase
    heart; decrease
  11. Having blood in the urine is called: (0.5pts)

    glycosuria
    ketonuria
    albuminuria
    hematuria
    pyuria
    hematuria
  12. Trace the production and flow of the glomerular filtrate/urine from the tubules of the nephron out of the body:
    • glomerular capsule
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • nephron loop
    • distal convoulted tubule
    • collecting duct
    • papillary duct
    • minor calyx
    • major calyx
    • renal pelvis
    • ureter
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  13. indicate which parts of the nephron are the primary sites for filtration, reabsorption, and secretion:
    • filtration: renal corpuscle (glomerulus)
    • reabsorption: proximal convoluted tubule
    • secretion: distal convoluted tubule
  14. trace the flow of blood through the kidneys:
    • aorta
    • renal artery
    • segmental artery
    • interlobar artery
    • arcuate artery
    • interlobular artery
    • afferent afteriole
    • glomerulus
    • efferetn afteriole
    • peritubular capillaries/vasa recta
    • interlobular vein
    • arcuate vein
    • interlobar vein
    • renal vein
    • inferior vena cava

    ** no segmental vein
  15. indicate which set of capillaries is the primary site of fluid filtration and which set is the primary site of fluid reabsorption in the kidneys:
    • fluid filtration: glomerulus
    • fluid reabsorption: peritubular capillaries
  16. Explain what stimulates its release, how it directly affects renal fxn, and the overall effect it has on the body for renin:
    • direct stimulus: decrease in blood pressure ( increase SNS activity)
    • direct effect: converts angiotensin I to II
    • overall effect on blood volume/BP: increase blood volume, increase BP
  17. Explain what stimulates its release, how it directly affects renal fxn, and the overall effect it has on the body for angiotensin II:
    • direct stimulus: decreased BP (increased renin activity)
    • direct effects: 1. vasoconstrictor 2. increase secretion of ADH 3. secret aldosterone 4. thirst
    • overall effect on blood volume/ BP: increase BP
  18. Explain what stimulates its release, how it directly affects renal fxn, and the overall effect it has on the body for aldosterone:
    • direct stimuli: Na+ concentration falls, increased K+ concentration, increased angiotensin II secretion
    • direct effects: 1. reabsorb Na+in DCT/CD, secret K+ in DCT/CD,
    • overall effect on blood volume/BP: retention of water helps to maintain blood volume and pressure, increase blood volume/BP
  19. Explain what stimulates its release, how it directly affects renal fxn, and the overall effect it has on the body for antidiuretic hormone (ADH):
    • direct stimuli: 1. decreased BP (decreased baroreceptor firing) 2. rising blood osmolarity (increased osmoreceptor firing)
    • direct effect: 1. collecting ducts more permeable to water 2. thirst
    • overall effect on blood volume/BP: increase blood volume/BP, decrease plasma osmolarity
  20. Explain what stimulates its release, how it directly affects renal fxn, and the overall effect it has on the body for atrial naturetic peptide (ANP):
    • direct stimulus: high blood pressure, hypertension, Right atrium stretch
    • direct effects: 1. dilate afferent arteriole 2. inhibit secretion of ADH 3. inhibit renin + aldosterone 4. inhibit NaCl reabsorption in CD
    • overall effect on blood volume/BP: decrease blood volume/BP
  21. indicate how the following will change (increase/decrease) after a sudden drop in blood volume:

    renin secretion:
    increase
  22. indicate how the following will change (increase/decrease) after a sudden drop in blood volume:

    ADH secretion:
    increase
  23. indicate how the following will change (increase/decrease) after a sudden drop in blood volume:

    ANP secretion:
    decrease
  24. indicate how the following will change (increase/decrease) after a sudden drop in blood volume:

    SNS activity:
    increase
  25. indicate how the following will change (increase/decrease) after a sudden drop in blood volume:

    aldosterone:
    increase
  26. indicate how the following will change (increase/decrease) after a sudden drop in blood volume:

    Na+ excretion:
    decrease
  27. indicate how the following will change (increase/decrease) after a sudden drop in blood volume:

    diameter of afferent arterioles:
    decrease
  28. indicate how the following will change (increase/decrease) after a sudden drop in blood volume:

    H2o reabsorbtion:
    increase
  29. indicate how the following will change (increase/decrease) after a sudden drop in blood volume:

    GFR:
  30. define glycosuria:
    excess glucose in the urine
  31. define ketonuria:
    ketones in the urine
  32. define hematuria:
    blood in the urine
  33. define albuminuria
    albumin or protein in the urine
  34. define pyuria:
    puss in the urine
  35. practice calculating renal clearance: if plasma (creatinine) is 4 mg/mL, urine (creatinine) is 120 mg/mL, and urine flow rate is 1 mL/min, what is the renal clearance:

    given that a nrmal GFR is 125 mL/min and based on your clacluation above, is this new drug secreted or reabsorbed by the nephron?
    U ( creatinine concentration in urine) x V (rate of urine output) / P (creatinine concentration in plasma)

    120 x 1/4 = 30mL/min

    RPC < GFR = substance is absorbed
  36. practice calculating renal clearance: renal handling tests of a new drug indicate the following: [drug]plasma= 1 mg/mL, [drug]urine= 80 mg/mL, urine flow rate = 2 mL/min.


    given that a normal GFR is 125 mL/min and based on your calculation above, is this new drug secreted or reabsorbed by the nephron?
    U (drug urine concentration) x V (rate of urine flow) / P (drug concentration in plasma)

    80 x 2 / 1 = 160 mL/min

    RPC > GFR = substance is secreted
  37. describe how the volume and osmolarity of urine was simliar/different between the four groups in todays urialysis experiment:

    compared to non-drinkers:

    water drinkers: volume / osmolarity
    • volume: increased
    • osmolarity: decreased
  38. describe how the volume and osmolarity of urine was simliar/different between the four groups in todays urialysis experiment:
    compared to non-drinkers:

    caffeine group: volume/ osmolarity
    • volume: increased
    • osmolarity: no change
  39. describe how the volume and osmolarity of urine was simliar/different between the four groups in todays urialysis experiment:
    compared to non-drinkers:

    pickle eaters: volume/osmolarity
    • volume: decreased
    • osmolarity: increased
  40. explain the physiological mechanism behind the difference in volume and osmolarity of the urine samples for the four test groups. include the direct stimulus, the hormones involved (if any), the direct effects of the stimulus/hormones and how this affected urine volume and osmolarity.

    water drinkers:
    • direct stimulus: large volume of water intake
    • hormones involved: ADH , secretion decreased
    • dierect effect of hormones: tubule cells remove aquaprorins, so water is not reabsorbed
    • effect on volume/osmolarity: increase urine volume, decrease osmolarity
  41. explain the physiological mechanism behind the difference in volume and osmolarity of the urine samples for the four test groups. include the direct stimulus, the hormones involved (if any), the direct effects of the stimulus/hormones and how this affected urine volume and osmolarity.

    caffeine consumers: [remember, caffeine dilates the afferent arteriole]
    • direct stimulus: caffeine
    • hormones invloved (chemical): diuretic (chemical)
    • direct effect of hormone (chemical): increase GFR, dilate afferent arteriole
    • effect on vloume/osmolarity: increase urine volume, no change in osmolarity
  42. explain the physiological mechanism behind the difference in volume and osmolarity of the urine samples for the four test groups. include the direct stimulus, the hormones involved (if any), the direct effects of the stimulus/hormones and how this affected urine volume and osmolarity.

    pickel (salt) eaters:
    • direct stimulus: salt drives reabsorption of water + solute
    • hormones involved: aldosterone
    • direct effect of hormone: reabsorb Na+, water follows, so water is retained
    • effect on volume/osmolarity: urine volume decreased, osmolarity increased
  43. Which blood vessels are the primary site of fluid filtration?

    afferent arterioles
    renal arteries
    interlobular arteries
    peritubular capillaries
    glomerulus
    glomerulus
  44. Tom is in a clinical study to determine how the latest cold medication, NasalEase, is handled by the body. As part of the study, researchers recorded the following data from Tom: urine flow rate = 4 mL/min; [NasalEase] in plasma = 3 mg/mL; [NasalEase] in urine = 300 mg/mL. What is the renal clearance of NasalEase?


    100 mL/min
    400 mL/min
    300 mL/min
    3600 mL/min
    225 mL/min
    35 mL/min
    400 mL/min
  45. When blood pressure rises, which of the following increases? Choose all that apply.

    SNS activity
    ANP secretion
    renin secretion
    Na+ excretion
    aldosterone secretion
    • ANP secretion
    • Na+ excretion
  46. When plasma osmolarity increases, ADH secretion _________ and water reabsorption ___________.


    increases; decreases
    decreases; increases
    decreases; decreases
    doesn't change; doesn't change
    increases; increases
    increases; increases

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