Anesthesia Q2, II

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HLW
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147754
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Anesthesia Q2, II
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2012-04-15 15:42:32
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Anesthesia Q2 II
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Anesthesia Q2, II
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  1. How do you treat malignant hyperthermia? 4
    • Discontinue inhalant anesthetics
    • Change soda lime
    • Dantrolene admin
    • Intense active cooling
  2. What drugs may cause increased muscle tone and stiff legs when they are in light depth of anesthesia? 5
    • Inhalant anethetics
    • Thiopental
    • Propofol
    • Etomidate
    • Alfaxalone
  3. When does the swallowing reflex disappear with thiopental, propofol or inhalant anesthesia?
    Early in plane 1
  4. When is the eyeball centrally placed under anesthesia?
    • Stage III-1
    • Stage III-3
  5. When is the eyeball usually ventromedially rotated, exposing the sclera under anesthesia?
    Stage III-2
  6. In what animals is eye position not very consistent?
    • Small ruminants
    • Camelids
    • Horse
  7. What does the onset of nystagmus or lacrimation indicate in a horse under anesthesia?
    Light plane of anesthesia
  8. What animals have a weak to moderate palpebral reflex during barbiturate, propofol or inhalation anesthesia?
    • Horse
    • Small ruminant
    • Camelids
  9. What animals have no palpebral reflex during barbiturate, propofol or inhalation anesthesia?
    • Cattle
    • Dogs
    • Pigs
  10. In what plane of stage III anesthesia do you see a more regular HR and RR but residual increase in HR and RR?
    Plane1
  11. In what plane of stage III anesthesia is there respiratory and CV function mildly depressed?
    Plane2
  12. In what plane of stage III anesthesia is there significant respiratory and CV depression?
    Plane3
  13. What reflects the alveolar concentration of inhalant anesthetic (brain partial pressure as well)?
    End expiratory anesthetic concentration
  14. What should you initially set the end tidal anesthetic concentration at?
    1.2-1.5X MAC
  15. How is mean arterial pressure related to cardiac output?
    MAP = CO x SVR
  16. What are some common parameters used to monitor adequate circulation? 6
    • Mucous membrane color
    • CRT
    • Heart rate
    • Electrocardiogram
    • Peripheral arterial pulse
    • Arterial blood pressure
  17. What does bright pink mucous membranes usually indicate?
    Vasodilation
  18. What is a normal CRT?
    Less than 2 seconds
  19. What is the normal HR range for a dog? cat?
    • Dog - 50-160 bpm
    • Cat - 100-240 bpm
  20. What is the normal HR range for a horse?
    25-50 bpm
  21. What is the normal HR range for ruminants? pigs?
    • Ruminants - 50-90 bpm
    • Pigs - 50-150 bpm
  22. What drugs can cause bradycardia? 4
    • Opioids (increased parasympathetic)
    • Anticholinesterases (increase acetylcholine)
    • Anesthetic overdose
    • Alpha2 agonists (decreases sympathetic)
  23. What are some possible causes of bradycardia during anesthesia? 7
    • Surgeon manipulation
    • Anesthetist manipulation
    • Hypothermia
    • Hypoxemia
    • Hypertension
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Heart disease
  24. What is the most common treatment of bradycardia during anesthesia?
    Administer anticholinergics
  25. What are some possible causes of tachycardia during anesthesia? 10
    • Light anesthesia plane
    • Pain
    • Reflex tachycardia
    • Positive inotropic drug infusion (dopamine)
    • Anticholinergics
    • Ketamine
    • Nitrous oxide or desflurane
    • Hypercapnia
    • Hypoxemia
    • Hyperthermia

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