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How do you treat malignant hyperthermia? 4
- Discontinue inhalant anesthetics
- Change soda lime
- Dantrolene admin
- Intense active cooling
What drugs may cause increased muscle tone and stiff legs when they are in light depth of anesthesia? 5
- Inhalant anethetics
When does the swallowing reflex disappear with thiopental, propofol or inhalant anesthesia?
Early in plane 1
When is the eyeball centrally placed under anesthesia?
When is the eyeball usually ventromedially rotated, exposing the sclera under anesthesia?
In what animals is eye position not very consistent?
- Small ruminants
What does the onset of nystagmus or lacrimation indicate in a horse under anesthesia?
Light plane of anesthesia
What animals have a weak to moderate palpebral reflex during barbiturate, propofol or inhalation anesthesia?
- Small ruminant
What animals have no palpebral reflex during barbiturate, propofol or inhalation anesthesia?
In what plane of stage III anesthesia do you see a more regular HR and RR but residual increase in HR and RR?
In what plane of stage III anesthesia is there respiratory and CV function mildly depressed?
In what plane of stage III anesthesia is there significant respiratory and CV depression?
What reflects the alveolar concentration of inhalant anesthetic (brain partial pressure as well)?
End expiratory anesthetic concentration
What should you initially set the end tidal anesthetic concentration at?
How is mean arterial pressure related to cardiac output?
MAP = CO x SVR
What are some common parameters used to monitor adequate circulation? 6
- Mucous membrane color
- Heart rate
- Peripheral arterial pulse
- Arterial blood pressure
What does bright pink mucous membranes usually indicate?
What is a normal CRT?
Less than 2 seconds
What is the normal HR range for a dog? cat?
- Dog - 50-160 bpm
- Cat - 100-240 bpm
What is the normal HR range for a horse?
What is the normal HR range for ruminants? pigs?
- Ruminants - 50-90 bpm
- Pigs - 50-150 bpm
What drugs can cause bradycardia? 4
- Opioids (increased parasympathetic)
- Anticholinesterases (increase acetylcholine)
- Anesthetic overdose
- Alpha2 agonists (decreases sympathetic)
What are some possible causes of bradycardia during anesthesia? 7
- Surgeon manipulation
- Anesthetist manipulation
- Heart disease
What is the most common treatment of bradycardia during anesthesia?
What are some possible causes of tachycardia during anesthesia? 10
- Light anesthesia plane
- Reflex tachycardia
- Positive inotropic drug infusion (dopamine)
- Nitrous oxide or desflurane