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List functions of the skin.
Protection, temp regulation, wound repair, absorption and secretion, communication, perception, identification, production of Vit D
What does an increase in sedentary lifestyle lead to?
How does a decrease in sweat glands affect the older adult?
Harder to thermo-regulate
What are dark red spots on an older adult called?
What are dark brown spots on an older adult called? What causes them?
- Senile lentigines (liver spots)
- clusters of melanocytes that appear after extensive sun exposure; usually not malignant.
What are the ABCDE danger signs of a nevus?
- A: Asymmetry (2 halves do not look the same)
- B: Border irregularity
- C: Color variation within the mole
- D: Diameter greater than 6mm
- E: Elevation or Enlargement changes
What is the difference between a junctional nevus and a compound nevus?
A Junctional nevus is a mole that is macular only and common in adolescents. A Compound nevus is a mole that is macular and papular and common in young adults.
Describe a Papule; provide examples.
Something you can feel caused by superficial thickening in the epidermis. Ex: elevated nevus (mole) and verruca (wart)
Describe a Macule, provide examples.
Solely a color change, flat, less than 1cm. Ex: petechiae, measles, freckles
Describe a patch, provide example.
Macules that are larger than 1cm. Ex: vitiligo
What is a nodule?
Solid, elevated, hard or soft, larger than 1cm. May extend deeper into the dermis than a papule.
Describe a wheal, provide examples.
Superficial, raised, transient and erythematous. Slightly irregular shape due to edema. Ex: mosquito bite, allergic reaction
Describe Urticaria, what is another name for it?
Urticaria (hives) are wheals coalesce to form extensive reaction, intensely pruritic.
Describe a vesicle, provide examples.
Elevated cavity containing free fluid up to 1 cm - a "Blister" Ex: herpes simplex, early varicella (chickenpox), herpes zoster (shingles).
Describe a Bulla, provide examples.
Larger than 1cm, superficial in epidermis; thin walled so it ruptures easily. Ex: burns contact dermatitis, friction blister
Describe a cyst, provide examples.
Encapsulated fluid-filled cavity in dermis or subQ, tensely elevating skin. Ex: sebaceous cyst
Describe a pustule, provide examples.
Elevated and contains pus in the cavity. Ex: impetigo, acne
Which part of your hand is best for regulating temperature changes?
Describe an Annular lesion, provide example.
Annular lesions are circular, begin in the center and work outward. Ex: ringworm.
Describe an Confluent lesion and provide an example.
Confluent lesions run together. Ex: urticaria
Describe a Discrete lesion and provide examples.
Discrete lesions are distinct, individual lesions that remain separate. Ex: skin tags, acne
Describe Grouped lesions, provide example.
Grouped lesions are clusters of lesions. Ex: vesicles of contact dermatitis
Describe Zosteriform lesions and provide one example.
Linear arrangement along a nerve route. Ex: herpes zoster
What is +2 edema? What is +4 edema?
+2 is moderate pitting; +4 is very deep pitting edema
What is a keloid?
A hypertrophic scar.
How quickly should capillary refill take place within a nail bed?
Within 2 seconds
What are the first three areas of the Braden Scale?
- Sensory Perception: 1=unresponsive, 4=no impairment
- Moisture: 1= always moist, 4=rarely moist
- Activity: 1= Bedfast, 4=walks frequently
What are the second three areas on the Braden Scale?
- Mobility: 1=completely immobile, 4=no limitations
- Nutrition: 1= very poor, 4=excellent
- Friction/Shear: 1=problem, 3= no problem
What is eczema?
An inflammatory condition of the skin characterized by redness, itching, and oozing vesicular lesions which become scaly, crusted or hardened.
What is a primary skin lesion?
When a skin lesion develops on previously un-fucked up skin.
What is ecchymosis?
Skin discoloration cause by blood collecting under the skin commonly following blunt trauma under the skin (a bruise).
What is impetigo?
A highly contagious staph skin infection, most commonly occurring on the faces of children. It begins as a blister and then ruptures and dries into a thick, yellow crust. Yummy.
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