Assess Skin.Hair.Nail.txt

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Assess Skin.Hair.Nail.txt
2012-04-15 18:20:02
Assess Skin Hair Nail

Assess Skin Hair Nail
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  1. List functions of the skin.
    Protection, temp regulation, wound repair, absorption and secretion, communication, perception, identification, production of Vit D
  2. What does an increase in sedentary lifestyle lead to?
    Skin breakdown
  3. How does a decrease in sweat glands affect the older adult?
    Harder to thermo-regulate
  4. What are dark red spots on an older adult called?
    Senile purpura
  5. What are dark brown spots on an older adult called? What causes them?
    • Senile lentigines (liver spots)
    • clusters of melanocytes that appear after extensive sun exposure; usually not malignant.
  6. What are the ABCDE danger signs of a nevus?
    • A: Asymmetry (2 halves do not look the same)
    • B: Border irregularity
    • C: Color variation within the mole
    • D: Diameter greater than 6mm
    • E: Elevation or Enlargement changes
  7. What is the difference between a junctional nevus and a compound nevus?
    A Junctional nevus is a mole that is macular only and common in adolescents. A Compound nevus is a mole that is macular and papular and common in young adults.
  8. Describe a Papule; provide examples.
    Something you can feel caused by superficial thickening in the epidermis. Ex: elevated nevus (mole) and verruca (wart)
  9. Describe a Macule, provide examples.
    Solely a color change, flat, less than 1cm. Ex: petechiae, measles, freckles
  10. Describe a patch, provide example.
    Macules that are larger than 1cm. Ex: vitiligo
  11. What is a nodule?
    Solid, elevated, hard or soft, larger than 1cm. May extend deeper into the dermis than a papule.
  12. Describe a wheal, provide examples.
    Superficial, raised, transient and erythematous. Slightly irregular shape due to edema. Ex: mosquito bite, allergic reaction
  13. Describe Urticaria, what is another name for it?
    Urticaria (hives) are wheals coalesce to form extensive reaction, intensely pruritic.
  14. Describe a vesicle, provide examples.
    Elevated cavity containing free fluid up to 1 cm - a "Blister" Ex: herpes simplex, early varicella (chickenpox), herpes zoster (shingles).
  15. Describe a Bulla, provide examples.
    Larger than 1cm, superficial in epidermis; thin walled so it ruptures easily. Ex: burns contact dermatitis, friction blister
  16. Describe a cyst, provide examples.
    Encapsulated fluid-filled cavity in dermis or subQ, tensely elevating skin. Ex: sebaceous cyst
  17. Describe a pustule, provide examples.
    Elevated and contains pus in the cavity. Ex: impetigo, acne
  18. Which part of your hand is best for regulating temperature changes?
    Dorsal aspect
  19. Describe an Annular lesion, provide example.
    Annular lesions are circular, begin in the center and work outward. Ex: ringworm.
  20. Describe an Confluent lesion and provide an example.
    Confluent lesions run together. Ex: urticaria
  21. Describe a Discrete lesion and provide examples.
    Discrete lesions are distinct, individual lesions that remain separate. Ex: skin tags, acne
  22. Describe Grouped lesions, provide example.
    Grouped lesions are clusters of lesions. Ex: vesicles of contact dermatitis
  23. Describe Zosteriform lesions and provide one example.
    Linear arrangement along a nerve route. Ex: herpes zoster
  24. What is +2 edema? What is +4 edema?
    +2 is moderate pitting; +4 is very deep pitting edema
  25. What is a keloid?
    A hypertrophic scar.
  26. How quickly should capillary refill take place within a nail bed?
    Within 2 seconds
  27. What are the first three areas of the Braden Scale?
    • Sensory Perception: 1=unresponsive, 4=no impairment
    • Moisture: 1= always moist, 4=rarely moist
    • Activity: 1= Bedfast, 4=walks frequently
  28. What are the second three areas on the Braden Scale?
    • Mobility: 1=completely immobile, 4=no limitations
    • Nutrition: 1= very poor, 4=excellent
    • Friction/Shear: 1=problem, 3= no problem
  29. What is eczema?
    An inflammatory condition of the skin characterized by redness, itching, and oozing vesicular lesions which become scaly, crusted or hardened.
  30. What is a primary skin lesion?
    When a skin lesion develops on previously un-fucked up skin.
  31. What is ecchymosis?
    Skin discoloration cause by blood collecting under the skin commonly following blunt trauma under the skin (a bruise).
  32. What is impetigo?
    A highly contagious staph skin infection, most commonly occurring on the faces of children. It begins as a blister and then ruptures and dries into a thick, yellow crust. Yummy.