general psychology exam 1

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general psychology exam 1
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  1. who
    -trained as a MD
    -things can effect our behavior eyond our awareness
    -unconscious desires may manifest themselves when a person is relaxed or dreaming
    SIGMUND FREUD
  2. who
    -created first academy
    PLATO
  3. who
    -lived 384-322BC
    -mental imagenary
    -first graduate of platos academy
    ARISTOTLE
  4. who
    -lived 1595-1650
    -discovered the reflex
    -mind/body dualism
    -mind/body interaction
    -theory of memory
    RENE DESCARTES
  5. who
    -first psychologish
    -wrote first textbook on psychology called "principles of psychology" in 1890
    -aka the "armchair" psychologist
    WILLIAM JAMES
  6. who
    -first experimental psychologist
    -1879
    -made first experimental lab in Germany
    -introspection and structuralism
    WILHELM WUNDT
  7. who
    -classical conditioning
    -Russian physicologist and experimental psychologish
    -"psychic secretions"
    PAVLOV
  8. who
    -observable behaviors only, no structuralism
    WATSON
  9. who
    -all behavior can be discrived in terms of the envrioment stimuli and experiance.
    -behavioral technology
    -the radical behaviorist
    SKINNER
  10. who
    -1956
    -the magic number of short-term memory (7)
    -chunking
    GEORGE MILLER
  11. who
    -Swiss psychologist
    -1950's
    -cognitive development
    JEAN PIAGET
  12. who
    -law of effect, reward for behavior more likely to behave like that again
    THORNDIKE
  13. What is Psychology?
    the study of human behavior and mental processes
  14. what approach?
    how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and experiances. goal is the explain the biological underpinnings of behavior.
    (BRAIN)
    NEUROSCIENCE APPROACH
  15. what approach?
    how we encode, process, store and retrieve information.
    (THINKING)
    COGNITIVE APPROACH
  16. what approach?
    how the natural selction of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes.
    (GENES)
    EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH
  17. what approach?
    how much our genes and our envrioment influence our individual differeces.
    (GENES VS. ENVRIOMENT)
    BEHAVIORAL GENETICS APPROACH
  18. what approach?
    how we learn observable responses.
    BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
  19. what approach?
    how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
    SOCIAL-CULTURAL APPROACH
  20. define
    introspection
    looking into your mind
  21. define
    structuralism
    what you find when you look in your own mind
  22. define
    functionalism
    describing what function that you find plays
  23. who
    -1st female president of APA in 1894
    -trained by James
    -discovered the Recency effect
    MARY WHINTON CALKINS
  24. what is
    -principles of orginazation and grouping
    -applies to visual preception
    -wholelistic organization (the whole is greater than some of its parts)
    GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY
  25. what 3 men were involved in the behaviorist movement?
    • pavlov
    • watson
    • and skinner
  26. define
    ideology
    against theorizing about mental "structures" such as memory and attention
  27. all behavior can be explained in terms of _________, _________, and __________
    • envrioment
    • conditioning
    • and reinforcement
  28. define
    observational
    nonexperimental research does not attempt to change
  29. define
    experiments
    • -attempts to control extraneous factors
    • -manipulate varibles
    • -change behavior
  30. define
    random sampling
    equal chance of being selected
  31. define
    stratified random sample
    random sampling from lists of different groups
  32. define
    correlations
    • the statistical method of the survey researcher
    • measures 2 or more variables to determine the degreee of relationship between them
  33. one varible goes up and the other down is________
    a negative correlation
  34. both varibles go either up or down (same direction) is ________
    a positive correlation
  35. corelation does not mean _________
    causation
  36. define
    scientific method
    • 1)define the problem (hypothisis)
    • 2)collect data
    • 3)analyze data (requires operationalism and obervation)
    • 4)draw conclusions
  37. define
    unconditioned stimuli (UCS)
    • event that leads to response without being taught
    • (food in mouth)
  38. define
    unconditioned response (UCR)
    (drooling)
  39. unconditioned=
    automatic
  40. conditioned=
    learned
  41. define
    reinforcement
    process by which stimulus or event strengthens or increases the event that it follows
  42. define
    positve reinforcement
    followed by reward
  43. define
    negative reinforcement
    removal of an unpleasent stimulus
  44. define
    dependent variable
    what you are trying to explain or learn about
  45. define
    independent variable
    the factor taht hypothetically influence or cause the behavior of interest
  46. define
    classical
    envrioment acts on you
  47. define
    operant
    you act on the envrioment
  48. define
    shapping
    the process of rewarding approximations of desired behavior

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