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2012-04-16 06:01:19
ECG Findings

ECG Interpretation Findings
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  1. What is PR Interval?
    • Time needed for:
    • SA Node stimulation,
    • Atrial depolarization,
    • Conduction thru AV Node (before Ventricles depolarize)
  2. How Long is the PR Interval?
    • 0.12 - 0.20 Seconds
    • 3-5 small boxes
  3. Causes of a Longer PR Interval Include?
    • 1st degree block
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Digitalis
    • Beta-Blockers
    • Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Aging
    • Conduction Disease
  4. What is the ST Segment?
    Early Ventricular Repolarization.
  5. Where is the ST Segment Located?
    End of the QRS Complex to the Beginning of the T wave
  6. What does and ELEVATED ST Segment Represent?
    • Myocardial Injury
    • Coronary Vasospasm
    • pericardiditis
    • Ventricular Aneurysium
    • HyperKalemia
    • Early Repolarization
  7. What Does DEPRESSED ST Segment Represent?
    • Myocadial Ishemia
    • Left or Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
    • Left of Right Ventricula Bundle Branch Blocks
    • HypoKalemia
    • Digitalis
  8. What is a P Wave?
    • Sinus Node spreading thru the Atria
    • Atrial Depolarization
  9. What is the Normal Amplitude of the P Wave?
  10. How Long is the P Wave?
    Less than 0.11 seconds
  11. What is the QRS Complex?
    Ventricular Depolarization
  12. What is the Amplitude of the QRS Complex?
    • less than 5mm represented by qrs
    • Greater than 5mm represented by QRS
  13. What is the Duration of the QRS Complex?
    • less than 0.12 seconds
    • 3 small boxes
  14. Where is Atrial Repolarization?
    Hidden behind QRS Complex
  15. What is the T wave Represent?
    • Ventricular repolarization
    • regaining negative charge
    • Resting state
  16. What is the U Wave represent?
    Thought to be repolarizaion of Purkinje Fibers
  17. What is the Physiological meaning behind the U Wave?
    • Hypokalemia
    • Hypertension
    • Heart Disease
  18. What are causes of Abnormally wide QRS Complex?
    • Left or Right Conduction impulses thru Bundle Branch
    • Early Electrical impulses (premature beats)
    • Conduction of impulses from Abnormal Accessory Conduction pathy that bypasses AV Node
    • Electrical Impulses that orginiate in an ectopic site in the ventricles
  19. What Are the H's of H&T's?
    • Hypovolemia
    • Hypoxia
    • Hydrogen ions (acidosis)
    • Hypokalemia/Hyperkalemia
    • Hypoglycemia
    • Hypothermia
  20. What are the T's of H&T's?
    • Toxins
    • Tamonade
    • Tension pneumothorax
    • Thrombosis (coronary pulmonary)
    • Trauma (hypovolemia, Increase Cranial Pressure ICP)
  21. What is Sinus Bradycardia?
    • Ventricular Rate or Atrial Rate less than 60pbm
    • Regular Rhythm
  22. Medication Treatment of Sinus Bradycardia includes?
    • *Atropine 0.5mg q3-5min max 3mg
    • **Rarely Catecholamines (Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, dopamine, metanephrine)
    • **Emergency Transcutaneous Pacing
  23. What are Hypo (lower) Metabolic Needs?
    • Sleep
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Athletic Training
  24. What are Hypermetabolic Needs?
    • Fever
    • Anxiety
    • Exercise
  25. What are Vagal Stimulations?
    • Vomiting
    • Bareing Down
    • Suctioning
    • Severe Pain
    • Extreme Emotions
  26. What is Sinus Tachycardia?
    • Faster than normal impulse rate.
    • greater than 100 bpm but less than 120 bpm
  27. What are Causes of Sinus Tachycardia?
    • Physiologica/Psychologica Stress
    • Medications
    • Autonomic Dysfunction
  28. Medications Causing Sinus Tachycardia Include:
    • Catecholamines(Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Metanephrine)
    • Aminophylline
    • Atropine
    • Stimulants (Caffiene, alcohol, nicotine)
    • Illicit drugs (amphetamines, Cocaine, Ecstasy)
  29. Treatment of Tachycardia Include
    • Identify and stop cause
    • RARELY: Beta Blockers & Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Catheter ablation of SA Node
  30. What is POTS?
    Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome
  31. What is the Treatment for POTS?
    • Increased Fluids and sodium
    • Use of Anti-embolism stocking to prevent pooling of blood in the lower extremities.
  32. What is a Sinus Arrythmia?
    • Sinus Node Creates irregular rhythm (atrial & ventricular)
    • Rate Increase on Inspiration Decreases on Expiration
  33. What is the usual treatment for Sinus Arrythmias?
    Not usually trated because rarely causes any significant hemodynamic effect.

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