Intro.Soc.1

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Anonymous
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147808
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Intro.Soc.1
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2012-04-22 15:18:58
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Soc 100
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Newman, Sociology
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  1. What is the Sociology imagination?
    The ability to see the impact of social forces on our private lives.
  2. What is Sociology?
    Systematic study of human society
  3. Individualistic explination?
    Tendency to attribute poeple's achievments and failures to their personal qualities.
  4. Comparative method?
    Research technique that compares existing official statistics and historical records across groups to test a theory about some social phenomenon.
  5. Egoistic suiside
    Type of suiside that occurs in settings where the individual is emphasized over group or community connections.
  6. Socialization
    Process of learning the social norms w/in your society.
  7. Social norms
    Rites and wrongs you are suposed to follow.
  8. What are some examples of AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION?
    Family,school,peers, and media.
  9. Macro?
    Large scale study serveys
  10. Micro
    Small scale
  11. Biology
    How humas function
  12. Who is considered the father of sociology?
    Emile Derkheim
  13. Durkhein clasified these three definitions of suisude
    Egoistic, Altruistic, and Anomic
  14. Egoistic suiside
    Type of suiside that occures in settings where the individual is emphasized over group or community connections,13
  15. Altruistic suicide
    Type of suicide that occures where ties to the comunity are concidered more inportant than individual identity,13,16
  16. Anomic suicide
    Type of suicide that occures when the structure of society is weakend or disrupted and people feel hopeless and disillusioned,13
  17. Anomie
    State of normlessness... rapid changes have disrupted society's ability to adequatly regulate and control its members.
  18. Quote C Write Mills #1
    "Neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society cn be understood w/o understanding both" p.1
  19. Demographics
    • Study of poulations "Segment specific"
    • Sex/gender, race/ethnicity, religion
  20. Society Vs. Culture
    • Society- groups of individuals sharing geography space and meeting basic survival needs... All animals have society.
    • Culture- Specific ways in which society meets basic survival needs. Ideas values & perceptions shared by members of socoety... language,traditions, use of symbols.
  21. Social construction of reality
    How meaning is established.
  22. Symbolic interactionism
    Theoretical perspective that explains society and social structure through an examination of the micro level, individuals, pairs, or groups, 48-50
  23. Structural functionalist perspective
    Theoretical perspective that posits that social institutions are structured to maintain stability and order in society, 46-47,83-84,250
  24. Status
    Any named social position that people can occupy
  25. Social institutions
    Stable set of roles, statuses, groups, and organizations. ie. family, politics, religion, health care, or economy- that provides a foundation for behavior in some magor area of social life.
  26. Social construction of reality
    Process through which the members of a society discover, make known, reafirm and alter a collective verion of facts, knowledge and truth.
  27. How does society influence the individual
    Through other individuals. EX: Milgrams study of obedience to those in athority. Through social structure ie...Status/roles,groups,organisations, social groups, sub cultures... Status and roles.
  28. Status set
    Collection of statuses healed by a person.
  29. Name the 2 Statuses
    • Ascribed status:Social position acquired at birth or taken involuntarily later on in life.
    • Acheived status : Social position acquired through our own efforts or accomplishments or taken on voluntarily.
  30. Max weber confired these 3
    Power, wealth, prestige
  31. Roles:
    Rights obligations, behaviors, duties, associated with a particular status.
  32. Role conflict
    Across role sets
  33. Role strain
    Within single role
  34. Subculture
    Values, behaviors, and artifacts of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture
  35. Counter-culture
    Group that activley opposes the values and behavior patterns of the dominant culture.
  36. Cultural Relativism
    Principle that peoples beliefs and activities should be interpreted in terms of their own culture.
  37. Ethnocentrism
    Tendency to judge other cultures using one's own as a standard.
  38. Folkway
    Informal norm that is mildly punished when violated.
  39. Mores
    Highly codified,formal,systematized norms that bring severe punishment when violated.
  40. Material culture
    Artifacts of a society that represent adaptations to the social and physical environment.
  41. Nonmaterial culture
    Knowledge, beliefs, customes, values, morals, and symbols that are shared by members of a society and that distinguish the society fron others.
  42. Sanction
    Social responce that punishes or otherwise discourages violations of a social norm.
  43. Sexual dichotomy
    belief that two biological sex categories, male and female, are permanent, universal, exhaustive, and mutualy exclusive.
  44. Intersexual
    Individuals in whom sexual differentiation is either incomplete or ambiguous.
  45. Transexuals
    People who identify with a different sex and sometimes undergo hormone treatment and surgery to change their sex.
  46. Socialization
    Process through which one learns how to act acording to the rules and expectations of a particular culture.
  47. Agents of socialization
    Various individuals, groups, and organizations who influence the socialization process.
  48. Anticipatory socialization
    Process through which people aquire the values and orientations found in statuses they will likely enter in the future.
  49. Re-socialization
    Process of learning new values, norms, and expectations when an adult leaves an old role and enters a new one.
  50. Total institution
    Place where individuals are cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period and where together they lead an enclosed, formally administered life.
  51. Sex
    Biological maleness or femaleness.
  52. Gender
    Psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness.
  53. Collectivist culture
    Culture in which personal accomplishments are less inportant in the formation of identity than group membership.
  54. Individualist culture
    Culture in which personal accomplishments are a more inportant component of one's self-concept than group membership.
  55. Microlevel
    Way of examining human life that focuses on the imediate everyday experiences of individuals.
  56. Macrolevel
    Way of examininghuman life that focuses on the broad social forces and structural features of society that exist above the level of individual people.
  57. Latent functions
    Unintended, unrecognized consequences of activities that help some part of the social system.
  58. Manifest function
    Intended , onbvious consequences of activities designed to help some part of the social system.
  59. Value
    Standard of judgement by which people deside on desirable goals and outcomes.
  60. Social groups
  61. Culture
    Language, values, beliefs, rules, behaviors, and artifacts that characterize a society.
  62. Symbol
    Something used to used to represent or stand for something else.
  63. Norms
    Culturally defind standard or rule of conduct.
  64. Sanction
    Social responce that punishes or otherwise discourages violations of a social norm.
  65. Deviance
    Behavior, ideas, or attributes of an individual or group that some people in society find offensive.
  66. Status
    Any named social position that people can occupy.
  67. Role
    Set of expectations- rights, obligations, behaviors, duties, associalted with a particular status.
  68. Group
    set of people who interact more or less regularly and who are concious of their identity as a unit.
  69. Primary group
    Collection of individuals who are together for a relativly long period, whose members have direct contact with and feel emotional attachment to one another.
  70. Secondary group
    Relativly inpersonal collection of individuals that is established to perform a specific task.
  71. social institution
    Stable set of roles, statuses,groups, and organisations- such as the institutions of education, family, politics, religion, health care, or economy- that provides a foundation for behavior in some major area of social life.
  72. Qualitative research
    Socioligical research based on nonnumeric research information (text, written words, phrases, sysmbols, observations) that describes people, actions, or events in social life.
  73. Quantitative research
    Sociological reseach based on the collection of numeric data that utilizes precise statistical analysis.
  74. Survey
    Form of social research in which the researcher asks subjects a series of questions, either verbally or on paper.
  75. Field research
    Type of social research in which the researcher observes events as they actualy occure.
  76. Participant observation
    form of field research in which the reasearcher interacts with subjects, sometimes hiding his or her identity.
  77. Nonparticipant observation
    Form of field research in which the field researcher observes people without directly interacting with them and without letting them know that they are being observed.
  78. Visual sociollogy
    Method of studing society that uses photographs, video and film either as means of gathering data or as sourses of data about social life.

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