Anesthesia Q2, III

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Anesthesia Q2, III
2012-04-15 20:12:03
Anesthesia Q2 III

Anesthesia Q2, III
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  1. What information does the arterial pulse pressure wave provide?
    • Systolic
    • Diastolic
    • MAP
  2. What does mean arterial pulse equal?
    MAP = (systolic-diastolic)/3 + diastolic
  3. Where will the dicrotic notch of the arterial pulse pressure wave be located in the case of arterial vasodilation? aterial vasoconstriction?
    • Vasodilation - Lower
    • Vasoconstriction - Higher
  4. What is the effect of positive pressure ventilation on the contour of the pulse pressure wave?
    Systolic pressure variation
  5. How does the doppler ultrasound indirectly measure blood pressure?
    Detects the flow of RBC's as they pass the Doppler crystal
  6. What should be the width of the blood pressure cuff be?
    40% of the limb or tail surface
  7. What are two indirect methods of arterial blood pressure measurement?
    • Doppler ultrasound
    • Oscillometric method
  8. How would take a direct measurement of arterial blood pressure?
  9. When referring to MAP, how is hypotension usually defined?
    • MAP <60 mmHg
    • MAP <70 mmHg in horses
  10. If heart rate is low and blood pressure is low, how would you treat? 2
    • Decrease anesthetic concentration
    • Administer anticholinergics
  11. If heart is normal to high and blood pressure is low, how would you treat? 3
    • Decrease anesthetic concentration
    • Volume expansion with fluid bolus
    • Infusion of dopamine
  12. How will the blood pressure be affected by putting an animal in dorsal recumbency?
    Systemic BP can be decreased
  13. When can hypovolemia be seen when related to blood loss?
    Blood loss exceeding 10%
  14. What is the blood volume of a dog? cat?
    • Dog - 90 ml/kg
    • Cat - 70 ml/kg
  15. What is the blood volume of a thoroughbred horse? normal horse?
    • Thoroughbred - 100 ml/kg
    • Normal - 70 ml/kg
  16. What is the blood volume of a sheep? caprine? bovine?
    • Sheep - 60 ml/kg
    • Caprine - 70 ml/kg
    • Bovine - 60 ml/kg
  17. How is the oxygen content in blood (CaO2 in ml/100ml) described?
    CaO2 = SaO2 x 1.34 + PaO2 x 0.003
  18. What does the amount of oxygen dissolved in blood depend on? 3
    • Concentration of partial pressure of inspired oxygen
    • Alveolar ventilation
    • Matching of ventilation and perfusion to the lungs
  19. What is normal PaO2 at room inspired oxygen concentration?
    80-100 mmHg
  20. What is the predicted PaO2 in relation to inspired O2?
    4-5X the percentage of inspired O2
  21. What is the PaO2 during anesthesia (O2 = 100%)?
    100 x 5 = 500 mmHg
  22. What may happen under anesthesia to anemic animals that have compensated increased blood flow to organs?
    May decompensate
  23. When may you see decreased "leftover" oxygen in the blood in relation to supplied oxygen?
    Hematocrit decreases below 20%
  24. What is decreased partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, sometimes less than 60 mmHg (equivalent to SaO2 less than 90%)?
  25. When does blood become cyanotic?
    Deoxygenated Hb exceeds 5g/100 ml in arterial blood (hematocrit >15%)
  26. What information is provided by the pulse oximeter?
    • Oxyhemoglobin saturation
    • Pulse rate
  27. What are some things that cause factors in the pulse oximeter reading? 5
    • Patient motion
    • Pigmented skin
    • Environmental light illuminating monitor site
    • Anemia
    • Arrythmias
  28. What are the advantages of the pulse oximeter? 3
    • Noninvasive
    • Provides continuous info on pulse rate and oxyhemoglobin
    • Indirect method of measuring SaO2
  29. What are five possible causes of hypoxemia?
    • Decreased amount of oxygen administered to patient or high altitudes
    • Hypoventilation
    • Ventilation/perfusion mismatch
    • Right to left shunt
    • Diffusion impairment