Ally H. PolSci1

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Ally H. PolSci1
2012-04-15 20:24:23
Political Science Vocabulary Part

Chapter 2
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  1. Amendment
    a change added to a bill, law, or constitution
  2. Antifederalists
    those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government and who were opponents of the Constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787
  3. Articles of confederation
    America’s first written constitution; served as the basis for America’s national government until 1789
  4. Bicameral
    having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses; opposite of unicameral
  5. Bill of Rights
    the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1791; they ensure certain rights and liberties to the people
  6. Checks and balnces
    mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches. Major examples include the presidential veto power over congressional legislation, the power of the Senate to approve presidential appointments, and judicial review of congressional enactments
  7. Cofederation
    a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government
  8. Elastic clause
    Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution (also known as the necessary and proper clause), which enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry them out
  9. Electoral college
    the presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president
  10. Expressed powers
    specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article I, Section 8) and to the president (Article II)
  11. Federalism
    a system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments
  12. Federalist Papers
    a series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay supporting the ratification of the Constitution
  13. Federalists
    those who favored a strong national government and supported the Constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787
  14. Great Compromise
    the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population, but linked representation in the House of Representatives to population
  15. Judicial review
    the power of the courts to review and, if necessary, declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional. The Supreme Court asserted this power in Marbury v. Madison
  16. Limited government
    a principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution
  17. New Jersey Plan
    a framework for the Constitution, introduced by William Paterson, which called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population
  18. Separation of powers
    the division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making
  19. Supremacy clause
    Article VI of the Constitution, which states that laws passed by the national government and all treaties are the supreme law of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision
  20. Three-fifths Compromise
    the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that stipulated that for purposes of the apportionment of congressional seats, every slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person
  21. Tyranny
    oppressive government that employs cruel and unjust use of power and authority
  22. Virgina plan
    a framework for the Constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, which called for representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state