What are the main macromolecules in living organisms?
Is hydrocarbon polar or non-polar?
The chain of carbons making up the “backbone” of the molecule is the ____ ______
small groups of atoms with specific chemical properties
when attached to the carbon backbone they can participate in chemical reactions, are polar & tend to make the molecules containing them hydrophilic–soluble in water
O_P_O- .....| .....O-
C .\ ..H
C .\ ..OH
N .\ ..H
Long hydrocarbon chains with a carboxyl group on one end are a group of molecules called fatty acids are ___________ and _________, and are both ____________ and ____________ in water.
Polar and Non-polar
Hydrophillic and Hydrophobic
long molecules consisting of repeating units of similar or identical building blocks
The building blocks of polymers
Protiens are made from
a combination of 20 amino acids
A monomer is attached to a polymer, or another monomer by a condensation reaction
Reaction involves the hydrogen group (-H) on one molecule and the hydroxyl group(-OH) on the other
Polymers are broken down by a hydrolysis reaction
Reaction involves adding a hydrogen group (-H) to one molecule and a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the other
–breaking a bond by adding water
-addition of water breaks a polymer into monomers
The creation of water in which removal of water links monomers together
What is formed by linking similar sugar monomers (monosaccharides) to form polysaccharides
Source of stored energy
These are formed from four kinds of nucleotide monomers
- noncovalent forces maintain the interactions between the _____ monomers
____________are simple sugars – these are the polysaccharide subunits
5-carbon sugars include Ribose and deoxyribose which are the backbones of RNA and DNA
Six carbon sugars (C6H12O6) include glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose.
–same formula, different structure
–single sugar monomer, chemical formula is a multiple of CH2O, chains of 3-7 carbons with hydroxyl (-OH) groups
a carbonyl functional group
at the end of the molecule
–an aldehyde, (aldose)
Fructose–C6H12O6 a carbonyl functional groupwithin a molecule–
a ketone (ketose)
Monosaccharides are covalently bonded by condensation reactions that form ________ linkages
Sucrose is a ______________
_______________ are large polymers of monosaccharides; the chains can be branching.
This common food is part of the family of polysaccharides of glucose
A highly branched polymer of glucose; main energy storage molecule in mammals.
the most abundant carbon-containing (organic) biological compound on Earth; stable; good structural material
Three fatty acids—nonpolar hydrocarbon chain attached to a polar carboxyl group (—COOH) (carboxylic acid)
One glycerol—an alcohol with 3 hydroxyl (—OH) groups
They have very little polarity and are extremely hydrophobic.
In _______ _____ ____ all bonds between carbon atoms are single; they are saturated with hydrogens.
saturated fatty acids
In __________ _____ _____ , hydrocarbon chains contain one or more double bonds. These acids cause kinks in the chain and prevent molecules from packing together tightly.
unsaturated fatty acids
—two fatty acids and a phosphate compound bound to glycerol is called a _____________.
The phosphate group has a negative charge, making that part of the molecule _________in water.
•In an aqueous environment, the nonpolar, hydrophobic "tails" pack together and the phosphate-containing "heads" face outward, where they interact with water.
•Biological membranes have this kind of structure.
Like the other macromolecules we looked at, nucleic acids are made up of smaller monomers called __________
Pentose sugar + Nitrogen containing base + phosphate group = _____________
What are the five Nitrogen bases for nucleotides?
What are the bases for DNA?
What are the bases for RNA?
Adenine and guanine, have a 2 ring structure, belong to what group?
Thymine, cytosine and uracil, have a 1 ring structure, belong to what group?
What is the specialized bond in nucleic acids?
The backbone of nucleotides are called
Nucleotides bond in condensation reactions to form ______________ linkages.
Nucleic acids grow in the __ to __ direction.
Single strand, one chain of polynucleotides
Double Strand, held together by hydrogen bonding
Adenine always bonds with __________
Guanine always pairs with ___________
The strands in DNA are _______________
How many bonds do adenine and thymine make?
How many bonds do Guanine and cytosine make?
RNA can fold on itself by ____________ _________
DNA—two polynucleotide strands form a "ladder" that twists into a double helix. _________ _________ _______ form the sides of the ladder, the hydrogen-bonded bases form the rungs.
DNA needs to be __________ exactly
_______ need to code for specific proteins
With specific bonding you start out with a _______ molecule of DNA
—complete set of DNA in a living organism
—DNA sequences that encode specific proteins and are transcribed into RNA
DNA > Transcription > RNA > Translation > ______________
Genetic information is stored in the ________
What is the monomer of DNA?
In Nucleic acids, nucleotides connect to the ____ end
3' (3 prime)
deoxyribose has one less __________ than ribose
What kind of bond is phosphodiester bond?
two hydroxyl groups bond together to make a _________ bond
_______ ________- Bond between carbohydrate (sugar) molecules through an intervening oxygen atom (–O–).
The most common monosaccharide; the monomer of the polysaccharides starch, glycogen, and cellulose
An energy storage polysaccharide found in animals and fungi; a branched-chain polymer of glucose, similar to starch
A carbohydrate made up of two monosaccharides (simple sugars).
Nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules that include fats, oils, waxes, steroids, and the phospholipids that make up biological membranes.
Having electric charges that are evenly balanced from one end to the other.
Having separate and opposite electric charges at two ends, or poles.
A three-carbon alcohol with three hydroxyl groups; a component of phospholipids and triglycerides
A molecule made up of a long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain and a polar carboxyl group. Found in many lipids.
A lipid containing a phosphate group; an important constituent of cellular membranes.