Biology Topics 4 & 5

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Author:
tdjohnson
ID:
147823
Filename:
Biology Topics 4 & 5
Updated:
2012-04-16 02:19:47
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cells biology
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Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids
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  1. What are the main macromolecules in living organisms?
    • Lipids
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  2. Is hydrocarbon polar or non-polar?
    Non-Polar
  3. The chain of carbons making up the “backbone” of the molecule is the ____ ______
    carbon skeleton
  4. small groups of atoms with specific chemical properties
    Functional groups
  5. when attached to the carbon backbone they can participate in chemical reactions, are polar & tend to make the molecules containing them hydrophilic–soluble in water
    functional groups
  6. -OH
    hydroxyl
  7. .....O
    .....||
    O_P_O-
    .....|
    .....O-
    Phosphate group
  8. ..O
    .//
    C
    .\
    ..H
    Aldehyde
  9. O
    ||
    C
    Ketone
  10. ..O
    .//
    C
    .\
    ..OH
    Carboxyl
  11. ..H
    ./
    N
    .\
    ..H
    Amino
  12. _SH
    Sulfhydryl
  13. Long hydrocarbon chains with a carboxyl group on one end are a group of molecules called fatty acids are ___________ and _________, and are both ____________ and ____________ in water.
    • Polar and Non-polar
    • Hydrophillic and Hydrophobic
  14. long molecules consisting of repeating units of similar or identical building blocks
    Polymers
  15. The building blocks of polymers
    monomers
  16. Protiens are made from
    a combination of 20 amino acids
  17. A monomer is attached to a polymer, or another monomer by a condensation reaction
    Reaction involves the hydrogen group (-H) on one molecule and the hydroxyl group(-OH) on the other
    Polymerization
  18. Polymers are broken down by a hydrolysis reaction
    Reaction involves adding a hydrogen group (-H) to one molecule and a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the other
    Depolymerization
  19. –breaking a bond by adding water
    -addition of water breaks a polymer into monomers
    Hydrolysis
  20. The creation of water in which removal of water links monomers together
    condensation reaction
  21. What is formed by linking similar sugar monomers (monosaccharides) to form polysaccharides
    Source of stored energy
    carbohydrates
  22. These are formed from four kinds of nucleotide monomers
    Nucleic acids
  23. - noncovalent forces maintain the interactions between the _____ monomers
    Lipid
  24. ____________are simple sugars – these are the polysaccharide subunits
    Monosaccharides
  25. 5-carbon sugars include Ribose and deoxyribose which are the backbones of RNA and DNA
    Pentoses
  26. Six carbon sugars (C6H12O6) include glucose, fructose, mannose, and galactose.
    Hexoses
  27. –same formula, different structure
    ISOMERS
  28. –single sugar monomer, chemical formula is a multiple of CH2O, chains of 3-7 carbons with hydroxyl (-OH) groups
    Monosaccharide
  29. Glucose–C6H12O6
    a carbonyl functional group
    at the end of the molecule
    –an aldehyde, (aldose)
  30. Fructose–C6H12O6 a carbonyl functional groupwithin a molecule–
    a ketone (ketose)
  31. Monosaccharides are covalently bonded by condensation reactions that form ________ linkages
    glycosidic
  32. Sucrose is a ______________
    disaccharide
  33. _______________ are large polymers of monosaccharides; the chains can be branching.
    Polysaccharides
  34. This common food is part of the family of polysaccharides of glucose
    Starches
  35. A highly branched polymer of glucose; main energy storage molecule in mammals.
    Glycogen
  36. the most abundant carbon-containing (organic) biological compound on Earth; stable; good structural material
    Cellulose
  37. Three fatty acids—nonpolar hydrocarbon chain attached to a polar carboxyl group (—COOH) (carboxylic acid)
    One glycerol—an alcohol with 3 hydroxyl (—OH) groups
    They have very little polarity and are extremely hydrophobic.
    Triglycerides
  38. In _______ _____ ____ all bonds between carbon atoms are single; they are saturated with hydrogens.
    saturated fatty acids
  39. In __________ _____ _____ , hydrocarbon chains contain one or more double bonds. These acids cause kinks in the chain and prevent molecules from packing together tightly.
    unsaturated fatty acids
  40.  
    —two fatty acids and a phosphate compound bound to glycerol is called a _____________.
    Phospholipid
  41. The phosphate group has a negative charge, making that part of the molecule _________in water.
    hydrophilic
  42.  
    •In an aqueous environment, the nonpolar, hydrophobic "tails" pack together and the phosphate-containing "heads" face outward, where they interact with water.
    •Biological membranes have this kind of structure.
    phospholipid bilayer
  43. Like the other macromolecules we looked at, nucleic acids are made up of smaller monomers called __________
    nucleotides
  44. Pentose sugar + Nitrogen containing base + phosphate group = _____________
    Nucleotide
  45. What are the five Nitrogen bases for nucleotides?
    • Thymine
    • Adenine
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine
    • Uracil
  46. What are the bases for DNA?
    • Thymine
    • Adenine
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine
  47. What are the bases for RNA?
    • Adenine
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine
    • Uracil
  48. Adenine and guanine, have a 2 ring structure, belong to what group?
    Purines
  49. Thymine, cytosine and uracil, have a 1 ring structure, belong to what group?
    Pyrimidines
  50. What is the specialized bond in nucleic acids?
    phosphodiester bond
  51. The backbone of nucleotides are called
    Sugar-phosphate backbone
  52. Nucleotides bond in condensation reactions to form ______________ linkages.
    phosphodiester
  53. Nucleic acids grow in the __ to __ direction.
    • 5′
    • 3′
  54. Single strand, one chain of polynucleotides
    RNA
  55. Double Strand, held together by hydrogen bonding
    DNA
  56. Adenine always bonds with __________
    Thymine
  57. Guanine always pairs with ___________
    cytosine
  58. The strands in DNA are _______________
    antiparallel
  59. How many bonds do adenine and thymine make?
    2 bonds
  60. How many bonds do Guanine and cytosine make?
    3 bonds
  61. RNA can fold on itself by ____________ _________
    Hydrogen bonding
  62. DNA—two polynucleotide strands form a "ladder" that twists into a double helix. _________ _________ _______ form the sides of the ladder, the hydrogen-bonded bases form the rungs.
    Sugar-phosphate groups
  63. DNA needs to be __________ exactly
    replicated
  64. _______ need to code for specific proteins
    Genes
  65. With specific bonding you start out with a _______ molecule of DNA
    parental
  66. —complete set of DNA in a living organism
    Genome
  67. —DNA sequences that encode specific proteins and are transcribed into RNA
    Genes
  68. DNA > Transcription > RNA > Translation > ______________
    polypeptide
  69. Genetic information is stored in the ________
    Nucleus
  70. What is the monomer of DNA?
    nucleotides
  71. In Nucleic acids, nucleotides connect to the ____ end
    3' (3 prime)
  72. deoxyribose has one less __________ than ribose
    oxygen
  73. What kind of bond is phosphodiester bond?
    Covalent bond
  74. two hydroxyl groups bond together to make a _________ bond
    Glycosidic
  75. _______ ________- Bond between carbohydrate (sugar) molecules through an intervening oxygen atom (–O–).
    glycosidic linkage
  76. The most common monosaccharide; the monomer of the polysaccharides starch, glycogen, and cellulose
    glucose
  77. An energy storage polysaccharide found in animals and fungi; a branched-chain polymer of glucose, similar to starch
    glycogen:
  78. A carbohydrate made up of two monosaccharides (simple sugars).
    disaccharide:
  79. Nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules that include fats, oils, waxes, steroids, and the phospholipids that make up biological membranes.
    Lipids
  80. Having electric charges that are evenly balanced from one end to the other.
    Non-Polar
  81. Having separate and opposite electric charges at two ends, or poles.
    Polar
  82. A three-carbon alcohol with three hydroxyl groups; a component of phospholipids and triglycerides
    glycerol
  83. A molecule made up of a long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain and a polar carboxyl group. Found in many lipids.
    fatty acid
  84. A lipid containing a phosphate group; an important constituent of cellular membranes.
    phospholipid

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