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- Description: Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine with CNS depressant, muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, and anterograde amnestic effects.
Indications: To induce sedation before cardioversion or intubation, Seizures
Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines, narrow-angle glaucoma, shock, coma, or acute alcohol intoxication.
Precautions: COPD, renal impairment, CHF, elderly.
- Dosage/Route: 1 to 2.5 mg slow IV; 0.07 to 0.08 mg/kg IM (usually 5 mg).
- Ped: 0.05 to 0.2 mg/kg IV: 0.1 to 0.15 mg/kg IM; 3 mg intranasal.
Antianxiety, Hypnotic, Anticonvulsant, Sedative
Description: Diazepam is a benzodiazepine sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant that reduces tremors, induces amnesia, and reduces the incidence and recurrence of seizures. It relaxes muscle spasms in orthopedic injuries and produces amnesia for painful procedures (cardioversion).
Indications: Major motor seizures, status epilepticus, premedication before cardioversion, muscle tremors due to injury, and acute anxiety.
Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to the drug, shock, coma, acute alcoholism, depressed vital signs, obstetric patients, neonates.
Precautions: Psychoses, depression, myasthenia gravis, Due to a short half-life of the drug, seizure activity may recur.
- Dosage/Route: Seizures: 5 to 10 mg IV/IM. Acute anxiety: 2 to 5 mg IV/IM.
- Pedi: 0.5 to 2 mg IM.
- Premedication: 5 to 15 mg IV.
- Pedi: 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg IV.
Description: Lorazepam is the most potent benzodiazepine available. It has strong antianxiety, sedative, hypnotic, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties, and a relatively short half-life.
Indications: Sedation for cardioversion and status epilepticus.
Contraindications: Sensitivity to benzodiazepines.
Precautions: Narrow-angle glaucoma, depression or psychosis, coma, shock, acute alcohol intoxication, renal or hepatic impairment, organic brain syndrome, myasthenia gravis, GI disorders, elderly, debilitated, limited pulmonary reserve.
- Dosage/Route: Sedation: 2 to 4 mg IM, 0.5 to 2 mg IV.
- Pedi: 0.03 to 0.5 mg/kg IV/IM/PR up to 4 mg.
- Status epilepticus: 2 mg slow IV/PR (2 mg/min). Pedi: 0.1 mg/kg slow IV/PR (2 to 5 min)
- Description: Chlordiazepoxide is a benzodiazepine derivative that produces mild sedation and anticonvulsant, skeletal muscle relaxant, and prolonged hypnotic effects.
- Indications: Severe anxiety and tension, acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms (DTs).
Contraindications: Hypersen to benzodiazepines, pregnant and nursing mothers, children under 6.
Precautions: Primary depressive disorders or psychoses, acute alcohol intoxication.
Dosage/Route: 50 to 100 mg IV/IM.