Chapter 26 Terms

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ellie.kay88
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Chapter 26 Terms
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2012-04-15 23:02:36
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  1. Stimson Doctringe
    Sec of State Henry Stimson, under Hoover, refused to recognize Japan's takeover of Manchuria in 1931; this non-recognition did nothing, as Japan attacked Shanghai and withdrew from the LofN
  2. Good Neighbor Policy
    opposite of Roosevelt Corollary, US was nice to Latin America, tried to correct political inequalities by acts such as lowering tariffs, and the attack on one... idea
  3. Fascism
    calls for decotion to nation above individual, atuocracy with dicator, strict economic and social regime; rose quickly in the 1930s in Italy, Germany, and Japan
  4. Nye Committee
    headed by Sen. Gerald Nye of ND, 1935, investigated bankers and munition makers that made profits in WWI, realized that the war was fought in part bc of the bankers needing justification for acting so boldly in the war; provoked debated about current war threat
  5. Neutrality Act
    1935 required an impartial embargo of arms to all belligerant nations; later, after Mussolini found a loophole and got oil, steel, and copper from the US to conquer Ethiopia, a secon ACt was added that prevented any loan or credit to belligerent nations
  6. Spanish Civil War
    1936-1939, staging ground for WWII, Franco took over newly elected Popular Front gvt, backed by Hitler and Mussolini who sent suppl.ies, weapons and troops to help Franc; Franco won in 1939; divided opinon in Europe and America
  7. Cash and Carry Program
    another Nautrality Act, 1937, meant to keep US neutral and fix economy through trade; belligerents could buy supplies other than munitions, as long as they paid cash beforehand and carried them to their ships
  8. Panay Incident
    two months after Quarantine Speech, the Panay, a gunboat on a Chines river, was sank by Jap planes; roosevelt accepted an apology (green light)
  9. Quarantine Speech (Trial Baloon)
    as Axis Powers were allying and growing stronger, Roosevelt called for an international "quarrantine" of Germany, Italy, and Japan' FDR quickly retreated from his stance, esp after Panay incident
  10. Appeasement
    policy used by GB PM Chamberlain and French leader in Munich Pact, appeased Hitler by giving him Sudetenland if he promised not to seek more territory; of course Hitler agreed; "appeasement" came to mean betrayl, weakness, and surrender
  11. Blitzkreig
    German air attak on Belgium and Holland, cleared the way to France
  12. Destroyers-for-Bases Deal
    FDR's plan to give GB 50 old destroyer ships in return for leases on GB Bases; reinforced national defenses on Panama Canal
  13. Lend-Lease Act
    1941, GB could no longer pay for weapons/supplies, the US lent or leased them to the Brithish. Expectiong to be paid back/ given back the weapons; US rejects isolationism
  14. Atlantic Charter
    created by Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, statement of principles the 2 nations had in common, including hatred of Nazi tyranny and support of "Four Freedoms," unofficial declaration fo war aims
  15. Pearl Harbor
    Japan bombs Pearl Harbor, Dec 7, 1941; US enters war
  16. Second Front
    the Soviet Union wanted the other Allies to open a second front in the wet, since they were fighting all the might of the Axis Powers in the east
  17. Operation Torch
    to help the SU, GB, and US would go to war in N Africa in 1942, good chance of success against Germans
  18. Midway
    Japanese Admiral Yamamoto attacked the Island of Miday, US knew he was coming, Japs sunk one US ship while US brought down several ships and skilled pilots; clear US victory marked the first in the Pacific, and the US then went on the offensive
  19. Office of War Mobilization
    led by SC Justice James F. Byrnes was put in charge of this; controlled major resources and distributed them more effectively, helped economy and war effort; example of centralized planning
  20. Manhattan Project
    group of 100,000+ scientists who worked on the atomic bomb during WWII
  21. War Labor Board
    gvt program used to create compromise between business and labor during the war; some strikes still occured, but helped increase union numbers
  22. INternment Camps
    camps where Japs and Jap-Americans were forced to live, supposed to be self-sufficient communinites but in reality were concentration camps
  23. Korematsu v. US
    upheld the internment camps, saying that residents with enemy affiliations could be dangerous to the US and the relocation was a wartime necessity; many Americans did not see the Japs as dangerous
  24. Stalingrad
    one of the bloddies battles in history, Axis vs SU, lasted six months, German army lost momentum,allies pushed them out
  25. A. Phillip Randolph
    organized Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, most powerful black labor organization, fought against discrimination that kept minorities out of jobs in defense industries and segregated in gvt jobs, led a march on Washington, prompted FDR to create FEPC
  26. FEPC
    Fair Employment Practices Commission, boldest step toward racial justice since Reconstruction; not entirely successful bc it was unable to enforce the ban
  27. Exec Order 8802
    established FEPC, which forbade discrimintation by race when hiring for gvt or defense industry jobs
  28. Zoot Suit Riot
    many Hispanics in LA would wear zoot suits, became outlawed, so they were a sign of rebellion; in 1943 a group of white sailors attacked innocent "zooters," the LA police were called in when Hispanics fought back, Hispanics were arrested while white sailors got off free
  29. Thomas Dewey
    ran against FDR in 1944, stood little chance bc war was being won; FDR won, but Dewey was closer than any election since 1916 had been
  30. Normandy
    D-Day, Hitler guessed wrong, Allies entered Normandy Beach, continued inward until they reached Paris two months later
  31. Battle of the Bulge
    German offensice in Ardennes Mountains; American victory
  32. Island Hopping
    General MacArthur said the Pacific war was most important bc the Far EAst would be important to the US later, so Adm. Nimitz led a leapfrogging campaign across island into the Pacific to get closer to Japan
  33. Teheran
    Big Three Leader met in Teheran, Iran for the first time; agreed upon D-Day plan, Stalin woul dkeep Germany occupied onthe eastern front and fight Japan once Germany was beat; did not resolve postwar peace disagreements (which was discussed at Yalta)
  34. Holocaust
    etc
  35. Britton Woods/ Dumbarton Oaks
    Alied meetings in the US, the first created structure for int'l economy, with International Monetary Fund and World Bank; the second created the United Nations
  36. Potsdam
    last Big Three Meeting, with Truman this time, to discuss Germany's political fate and German reaparations, GB and US didn't want to kick Germany while it was down, but the SU demanded money; ended with four occupation zones in Germany
  37. Hiroshima/ Nagasaki
    where the US dropped the atomic bombs (Little Boy first, then FAt Man) to end the war more quickly

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