Abnormal Psych-460 AT

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Abnormal Psych-460 AT
2012-04-29 22:32:52
Abnormal Psych

Ab Psych Exam 3
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  1. Symptoms of Anorexia
    • A refusal to maintain more than 85% of normal body weight
    • ·Intense fears of becoming overweight
    • ·Disturbed body perception
    • ·Amenorrhea
  2. Two types of Anorexia?
    • ·Restricting type - cut out sweets and fattening snacks,
    • eventually restricting nearly all food. No variability in diet

    ·Binge-eating/purging type- vomiting after meals, abusing laxatives or diuretics, or engaging in excessive exercise. May engage in eating binges
  3. Cycle of Annorexia?
    Starvation, preoccupation with food, increased anxiety and depression, medical problems, greater feeling of fear and loss of control, harder attempts at thinness, starvation
  4. Bulimia
    • Binge Purge syndroms
    • Binges- bouts of uncontrolled overeating during a limited period of time.
  5. 2 types of bulimia
    Purging Type- vomiting, misusing laxatives, diruretics, or enemas similar to anorexia purging type

    Non-Purging- fasting, exercising
  6. Differences between bulimia and anorexia nervosa
    Bulimia: please others, attractive to others, intimate relations, more sexual experience,mood swings, low frustration tolerance, poor coping, controlled by emotion, personality disorder, only half experience amenorrhea, damgage by purging

    Anorexia: almost all have amenorrhea
  7. Drug?
    any substance other than food that affects our bodies or minds - not just medicine or illegal

    substnace- includes alcohol, tobacco and caffeine
  8. substanace intoxication
    poisoning- temporary state of poor judgement, mood changes, irritability, slurred speech, poor coordination
  9. Hallucinosis
    paritcular form of intoxication, perceptual distortions ot hallucinations casued by drugs like LSD
  10. substance abuse
    a pattern of behavior in which a person relies on a drug excessively and chronically, damaging relationships, affecting work functioning, and/or putting self or others in danger
  11. substance dependence
    • a more advanced pattern of use in which a person abuses a drug and centers his or her life around it
    • addiction
    • tolerance and withdrawal
  12. tolerance

    (need increasing doses to get an effect)

    (unpleasant and dangerous symptoms when substance use is stopped or cut down)
  13. Depressants
    • slow CNS
    • reduce tension and inhibitions
    • interfere with judgement,motor activity, and concentration
  14. 3 types of depressants
    • Alcohol
    • Sedative Hypnotic drugs
    • Opiods
  15. binge drinking
    5 or more drinks at a time
  16. alcohol contains:
    • ethyl alcohol
    • blood through stomach lining- bloodstream and CNS
  17. effects of alcohol
    • short- blocks messages between neurons
    • helps GABA shutdown neurons and relax drinker
  18. Blood alcohol concentration
    • given amount has less effect on large person than small
    • gender-women have less dehydrogenase- more intoxicated
  19. dehydrogenase
    an enzyme in the stomach that metabolizes alcohol before it enters the blood
  20. BAC levels
    • .06 relax
    • .08 driving
    • .09-intox
    • .55-death
  21. alochol is metabolized by what?
    • the liver
    • approximately 25% of an ounce/hour
  22. ·delirium tremens
    • (“the DTs”)
    • dramatic and dangerous withdrawal symptom from alcohol
    • can be fatal
  23. long tem health problems from alcohol
    • damage to the liver-cirrhosis
    • nutritional problems-korsakoff's
    • fetal alcohol syndrom
  24. Sedative-hypnotic
    • anxiolytic
    • produce feeliong of relaxation and drowsiness
    • low-calming or sedative effect
    • high-sleep inducers or hypnotics
  25. 2 kinds of sedative hypnotic drugs?
    • barbituates
    • benzodiazapines
  26. Barbituates
    effects on body
    • Pill or capsule
    • low-reduce anxiety
    • attach to GABA receptors and help
    • metabloized by liver
    • high-sleepy-effect reticular formation
    • toohigh-hault breathing and lower bloodpressure,can lead to coma and cause death
  27. benzodiazapines/
    most popular available
    • relieve anxiety
    • Xanaz, ativan, and valium
  28. Benzodiazapines effect of body
    bind to GABA and increase activity, relieve anxiety but do not cause sleepiness
  29. Opiods
    • Narcotics
    • smoked,inhaled,injected just under-skin popped directly-mainlined
    • natural-opium,heroin,morphine,codeine
    • synthetic- methadone
  30. Injection and opiods
    • ·quickly brings on a “rush”: a spasm of warmth and ecstasy that is sometimes compared with orgasm
    • followed by several hours of pleasurable feelings (called a “high” or “nod”)
  31. Opiods effect on the body
    • pain relief and relaxation
    • bind to pain receptors in brain that normally recieve endorphines- have same effects as endorphines-
    • can also cause nausea,narrowing of pupils, and constipation
  32. Heroin abuse
    • quickly build tolerance and experience withdrawal
    • early withdrawal inculde:anxiety restlessness,
    • later:twitching, aches,fever,vomit,disarrhea,weight loss from hehydration
  33. dnagers of heroin
    • overdose
    • ignorance of tolerance
    • impure drugs
  34. stimulants
    • substances that increase the activity of the central nervous system (CNS)
    • increase blood pressure,heart rate, and alertness
    • rapid behavior and thinking
  35. most common stimulants
    • cocaine
    • amphetamines
    • caffeine
    • nicotine
  36. Cocaine
    • Derived from the leaves of the coca plant, cocaine is the most powerful natural stimulant known
    • euphoric rush of well-being- stimulates the CNS and decreases appetite
  37. cocaine effects on body
    • prevent dopamine from being reabsorbed- increasing DA at key receptors
    • increase NE and Serotonin
  38. cocaine intoxication
    • mania, paranoia, and impaired judgment
    • ·hallucinations and/or delusions, a condition known as cocaine-induced psychotic disorder
    • the drug subside, the user experiences a depression-like letdown, popularly called “crashing”
  39. Two cheaper types of cocaine
    • freebase-·the drug is heated and inhaled with a pipe
    • Crack- ·powerful form of freebase that has been boiled down for smoking in a pipe
  40. dangers of cocaine
    • increase likelyhood of miscairrage and children with abnormalities
    • overdose-can cause heart failure, stop breathing
  41. amphetamines
    • stimulant drugs that are manufactured in the laboratory· Increase energy and alertness and lower appetite when taken in small doses
    • Produce a rush, intoxication, and psychosis in high doses
    • Cause an emotional letdown as they leave the body
    • pill or capsule
    • injected ot taken in ice and crank
    • methaphetamine recently popular
  42. amphetamine effect of body
    • increasing DA, NE and serotonin
    • tolerance develops quickly
  43. Caffeine
    • most widely used stimulant
    • 99% of ingested absorbed by body and reached peak within an hour
  44. caffeine effect on body
    producing release of DA,Serotinin, and NE
  45. Hallucinogens
    • psychedelic drugs
    • Produce delusions, hallucinations, and other sensory changes
    • produce powerful changes in sensory perceptions (sometimes called “trips”)
  46. ·Cannabis substances
    ·Produce sensory changes, but have both depressant and stimulant effects
  47. polysubstance use
    Combinations of substances
  48. types of hallucinogens
    • natural-mescaline and Psilocybin
    • synthetic- Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)·MDMA (Ecstasy)
  49. LSD
    • ·Within two hours of being ingested, it brings on a state of hallucinogen intoxication (hallucinosis)
    • Increased and altered sensory perception Hallucinations may occur
  50. ·synesthesia
    • The drug may cause different senses to cross
    • common with LSD
  51. hallucinogens effect on body
    • binding to serotonin receptors
    • receptors control visual information and emotions, thereby causing the various effects of the drug on the user
  52. dangers of hallucinogens
    • tolerance and withdrawal rare
    • bad trips
    • flashbacks
  53. canabis
    • drugs produced from varieties of the hemp plant
    • Hashish, the solidified resin of the cannabis plant
    • Marijuana, a mixture of buds, crushed leaves, and flowering tops
  54. major ingredient in cannabis
    (THC) tetrahydrocannabinol
  55. effects of cannabis
    • hallucinogenic, depressant, and stimulant effects
    • low doses, the user feels joy and relaxation·-anxious, suspicious, or irritated
    • overall “high” is technically called cannabis intoxication
    • high doses- odd visual experiences, changes in body image, and hallucinations
  56. Marijuana
    many users are caught in a pattern of abuse·Some users develop tolerance and withdrawal, experiencing flu-like symptoms, restlessness, and irritability when drug use is stopped
  57. dangers of marijuana
    • panic reactions similar to those caused by hallucinogens
    • been implicated in accidents
    • poor concentration and impaired memory
    • respiratory problems and lung cancer
    • In males, it may inhibit sperm production
    • In women, it may block ovulation
  58. Cross-tolerance
    • drugs similar in their actions on the brain and body that-build a tolerance for one drug, they are simultaneously developing a tolerance for the other (even if they have never taken it)
    • reduce the symptoms of withdrawal from one drug by taking the other·Example: alcohol and benzodiazepines
  59. Synergistic effects
    • different drugs are in the body at the same time, they may multiply, or potentiate, each other’s effects
    • often greater than the sum of the effects of each drug taken alone
  60. (antagonistic) synergistic effects
    • drugs have opposite effects. Ex- stimulants or cocaine with barbituates or alcohol
    • ·May build up lethal levels of the drugs because of metabolic issues (stimulants impede the liver’s processing of barbiturates and alcohol)
  61. 2 major catagories of sexual disorders
    • sexual dysfunctions-problems with sexual responses
    • Paraphilias- repeated and intense sexual urges and fantasies in response to socially inappropriate objects or situations
  62. Paraphilias-
    repeated and intense sexual urges and fantasies in response to socially inappropriate objects or situations
  63. gender identity disorder
    ·a sex-related pattern in which people feel that they have been assigned to the wrong sex
  64. sexual dysfuntions
    • problems with sexual responses
    • cannot respond normally in key areas of sexual functioning·
    • very distressing, and often lead to sexual frustration, guilt, loss of self-esteem, and interpersonal problems
  65. 4 phases of sexual response
    • ·Desire· -
    • M-arousal steadily^
    • Excitement-
    • M-physiological arousal^, but not as steep
    • ·Orgasm
    • -M-spike in physiological arousal
    • Resolution,
    • M- decrease in arousal
    • F-the same except for possibility of another orgasm before resoulution, as well as resolution w/o orgasm
    • sexual dysfuntions effect one or more of the first three
  66. disorders of sexual desire
    • urge to have sex, sexual fantasies, and sexual attraction to others
    • Hypoactive sexual desire disorder-·lack of interest in sex and little sexual activity
    • Sexual aversion disorder-·total aversion to (disgust of) sex
  67. sex disorders of excitement
    • changes in the pelvic region, general physical arousal, and increases in heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure, and rate of breathing
    • M-erection
    • W-swelling of clitoris,labia and vaginal lubrication
    • Female sexual arousal disorder (formerly “frigidity”)
    • ·Male erectile disorder (formerly “impotence”)
  68. ·Female sexual arousal disorder
    • excitement disorder
    • Characterized by repeated inability to maintain proper lubrication or genital swelling during sexual activity
    • often tied to orgasmic disorder
  69. ·Male erectile disorder
    • (ED)·
    • repeated inability to attain or maintain an adequate erection
  70. Disorders of Orgasm
    • Sexual pleasure peaks and sexual tension is released as the muscles in the pelvic region contract rhythmically
    • ·Rapid or Premature ejaculation
    • ·Male orgasmic disorder ·
    • Female orgasmic disorder
  71. ·Rapid or Premature ejaculation
    ·persistent reaching of orgasm and ejaculation with little sexual stimulation
  72. ·Male orgasmic disorder
    ·repeated inability to reach orgasm or by a very delayed orgasm after normal sexual excitement
  73. ·Female orgasmic disorder
    persistent delay in or absence of orgasm following normal sexual excitement
  74. sexual pain disorders
    • Vaginismus
    • Dyspareunia
  75. ·Vaginismus
    • ·involuntary contractions of the muscles of the outer third of the vagina
    • less than 1%
  76. ·Dyspareunia
    ·severe pain in the genitals during sexual activity
  77. fetishism
    • recurrent insense sexual urges, sexually arousing fantasies or behaviors that involve the use of non-living objects
    • adolescence
  78. transvestism or cross-dressing fetishism
    fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving dressing in the clothes of the opposite sex in order to achieve sexual arousal
  79. Exhibitionism
    • arousal from the exposure of genitals in a public setting
    • sexual contact not initiated or desired
  80. Voyeurism
    repeated and intense sexual desires to observe people as they undress or to spy on couples having intercourse
  81. Frotteurism
    recurrent and intensefantasies, urges, or behaviors involving touching and rubbing against a nonconsenting person
  82. Pedophilia
    fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child, usually 13 years of age or younger
  83. Sexual Masochism
    fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the act or the thought of being humiliated, beaten, bound,or otherwise made to suffer
  84. Sexual Sadism
    fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the thought or act of psychological or physical suffering of a victim sexually exciting
  85. psychosis
    • loss of contact with reality
    • ability to perceive
    • and respond to the environment is significantly disturbed; functioning is impaired
    • include
    • hallucinations (false sensory perceptions) and/or delusions (false beliefs)
  86. catagories of symptoms of schizophrenia
    • ·Positive symptoms- “pathological excesses” are bizarre additions to a person’s behavior . Delusions,disordered thinking and speech
    • Negative symptoms-characteristics that are lacking in an individual
    • ·Psychomotor symptoms-·Awkward movements, repeated
    • grimaces, odd gestures,The movements seem to have a
    • magical quality-catatonia
  87. Course of Schizophrenia?
    • ·Prodromal – beginning ofdeterioration; mild symptoms
    • ·Active -symptoms become increasingly apparent
    • ·Residual– a return to prodromal levels
  88. five subtypes: of schizophrenia
    • ·Disorganized– characterized by confusion, incoherence, and flat or inappropriate affect
    • Catatonic– characterized by psychomotor disturbance of some sort
    • ·Paranoid – characterized by an organized system of delusions and auditory hallucinations
    • Undifferentiated– characterized by symptoms which fit no subtype; vague category
    • Residual– characterized by symptoms which have lessened in strength and number; person may continue to display blunted or inappropriate emotions, as well as social
    • withdrawal, eccentric behavior, and some illogical thinking
  89. Type I and Type II schizophrenia
    • ·Type I schizophrenia is dominated by positive symptoms
    • Seem to have better adjustment prior to the disorder, later onset of symptoms, and greater likelihood of improvement
    • May be linked more closely to biochemical abnormalities in the brain

    • ·Type II
    • schizophrenia is dominated by negative symptoms May be tied largely to structural abnormalities in the brain
  90. A diathesis-stress
    biological predisposition will develop schizophrenia only if certain kinds of stressors or events are also present
  91. personality
    ·Personality is a unique and long-term pattern of inner experience and outward behavior
  92. a personality
    ·An inflexible pattern of inner experience and outward behavior
  93. 2 components of the state of stress?
    • Stressor – event that creates demands
    • Stress response – person’s reactions to the demands

    • Influenced by how we appraise both the event and our capacity to react to the event effectively
    • People who believe they have the ability and resources to cope = more likely to take stressors in stride and
    • respond constructively
  94. Fear is set in motion by what?
    • Hypothalamus- activates:
    • Autonomic nervous system- nerves that connect brain and spinal cord to other organs
    • Endocrine System-network of glands that release hormones
  95. Fear produces arousal through the ANS and endocrine through which 2 systems?
    • Sympathetic nervous system pathway-stimulates key organs
    • hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway(HPA)-hypo signals the pituitary- stimulates the adrenal cortex-to release corticosteroids- stress hormones
    • together are refered to as the fight or flight response

    parasympathetic heps return to normal after fear passes-calms
  96. trait anxiety
    • general level of arousal and anxiety
    • differences appear soon after birth
  97. state anxiety
    • sense of which situations are threathening
    • situation based- ex. fear of flying
  98. Acute Stress Disorder
    • Symptoms begin within four weeks of event and last for less than one month
    • 80% develope into PTSD
  99. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    Symptoms may begin either shortly after the event, or months or years afterward
  100. What triggers stress disorders
    • Combat -soldiers experience stress during combat
    • shell shock of combat fatigue
    • Disasters-natural and accidental
    • Victimization- abused or victimized- 1/3 of all victims of sexual or physical assault
    • Terrorism or torture
  101. somataform disorders
    • are problems that appear to be medical but are due to psychosocial factors
    • psychological disorders masquerading as physical problems
    • physical problem with no apparent medical cause
  102. dissociative disorders
    patterns of memory loss and identity change that are caused almost entirely by psychosocial factors rather than physical ones
  103. 2 main types of somataform disorders
    • hysterical somatoform disorder-suffer changes in physical funtioning- hard to distinguish between real medical issues
    • preoccupation somataform disorder
  104. 3 hysterical somataform disorders
    • conversion disorder
    • somatization disorder
    • pain disorder associated with pychological factors
  105. converstion disorder
    • somatization-hysterical
    • psychosocial conflict or need is converted into dramatic physical symptoms that affect voluntary or sensory functioning-paralysis, blindness, loss of feeling
  106. somatization disorder
    • somataform-hysterical
    • many long-lasting physical ailments that have little or no organic basis
    • a patient must have a
    • range of ailments, including several pain symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, a sexual symptom, and a neurological symptom
    • last longer than conversion-many years
  107. pain disorders associated with psychological factors
    • psychosocial factors play a central role in the onset, severity, or continuation of pain
    • The disorder often develops after an accident or illness that has caused genuine pain
  108. malingering
    intentionally faking illness to achieve external gain (e.g., financial compensation, military deferment)
  109. a factitious disorder –
    • intentionally producing or faking symptoms simply out of a wish to be apatient
    • often go to extremes to create appearance of illness
  110. Munchhausen syndrom
    extreme and long tern form of a facticious disorder- fake physical ailment simply out of wishing to be a patient
  111. Munchausen syndrom by proxy
    parents make up or produce physical illnesses in their children
  112. preoccupation somotaform disorders
    People with these problems misinterpret and overreact to bodily symptoms or features
  113. 2 types of preoccupation somatoform disorders
    • hypochondriasis
    • body dyshmorphic disorder
  114. hypochondriasis
    • unrealistically interpret bodily symptoms as signs of serious illness
    • often merely normal body changes-sweat, sores, coughing
  115. body dysmorphic disorder
    • BDD - or dysmorphobia
    • deeply concerned over some imagined or minor defect in their appearance
  116. Dissociative Disorders
    • changes in memory with a lack of clear physical cause
    • usually seems that one part of memory is dissociated or serparated from the rest
    • also linked to PTSD
    • interferes with episodic memory (autobiographical memory of personal material), not semantic-memory for abstract encyclopedic info
  117. types of dissociative disorders
    • dissociative amnesia
    • dissociative fugue
    • dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)
    • depersonalization disorder
  118. dissociative amnesia
    • unable to recall important information, usually of an upsetting nature, about their lives
    • much more extensive than normal forgetting and not caused by organic factors
    • often triggered by a specific upsetting event
  119. types of dissociative amnesia
    • localized- most common- loss of all memory of events occuring within a limited period
    • selective- loss of memory for some, but not all events occurring within a period
    • generalized- loss of memory beginning with an even, but extending back in time, may lose sense of identity or fail ro recognize family and friends
    • continious-forgetting of both old and new information-rare
  120. Dissociative Fugue
    • not only forget their personal identities and details of their past, but also flee to an entirely different location
    • majority regain most or all of memories and never have a recurrence
  121. dissociative identity disorder
    • DID (multiple perosnality)
    • developes two or more distinct personalities (subperosnalities) - each with unique set of memories, behaviors, thoughts and emotions
  122. mutually amnesic relationships
    • DID
    • subpersonalities have no awareness of one another
  123. mutually cognizant patterns
    • DID
    • each subpersonality is well aware of the rest
  124. one-way amnesic relationships
    • DID
    • some personalities are aware of the others, but the awareness is not mutual
    • those who are aware- conconcious are "quite observers"
  125. Depersonalization Disorder
    • persistent and recurrent episodes of depersonalization, which is a change in one’s experience of the self in which one’s mental functioning or body feels unreal or foreign
    • often associated with derealization-the feeling that the extenal world too is unreal and strange
  126. Mood Disorders
    • two key emotions on a continium
    • Depression-low sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwhelming
    • Mania-state of breathless euphoria or frenzied energy
  127. Unipolar depression
    experience only depression-no history of mania, mood returns to normal when depression lifts
  128. bipolar disorder
    • experience periods of mania that alternate with periods of depression
    • unipolar mania- only mania- uncommon
  129. areas of funtioning that may be affected by depression
    • 5 areas:
    • emotional: miserable, empty, humiliated, little pleasure
    • motivational: lacking drive, initiative, spotanaeity,
    • behavioral: less active and productive
    • cognitive: hold (-) views of self, blame self, pessimism
    • physical: headaches, dizzy spells, genreal pain
  130. criteria for major depressive episode
    • five or more symptoms lasting 2 weeks or more
    • no history of mania
  131. major depressive disorder and dsthymic disorder criteria
    • depressive- criteria 1 and 2 are met
    • dsthymic- mild symptoms,but chronic; depression longer lasting, but less disabling; consistent symptoms for at least 2 years; when leads to major depression=double depression
  132. Five main areas of funtioning affected by bi-polar
    • emotional: active powerful emotion in search for outlet
    • motivational: need for constant excitement,involvement,companionship
    • behavioral: very active, move quickly, talk loud, or rapid,
    • cognitive: poor judgement or planning
    • physical: high energy level
  133. Criteria for bi-polar
    • three or more symptoms of mania lasting one or more week
    • history of mania
  134. Bi-polar I disorder
    Bi-polar II disorder
    • full manic and major depressive symptoms
    • hypomanic episodes and major depressive symptoms
  135. rapid cycling bi-polar
    experience four or more episodes within a one-year period, their disorder is further classified as rapid cycling
  136. seasonal bi-polar
    episodes vary with the seasons
  137. clyclothymic disorder
    • numerous episodes of hypomania and mild depressive symptoms
    • Mild symptoms for two or more years, interrupted by periods of normal mood
  138. parasuicide
    unsuccessful suicide attepmts
  139. suicide
    intentioned death – a self-inflicted death in which one makes an intentional, direct, and conscious effort to end one’s life
  140. death seekers
    clearly intend to end their lives
  141. death initiators
    intend to end their lives because they believe that the process of death is already underway
  142. Death ignorers
    do not believe that their self-inflicted death will mean the end of their existence
  143. Death darers
    have ambivalent feelings about death and show this in the act itself
  144. subintentional death
    individuals play indirect, hidden, partial, or unconscious roles in their own deaths
  145. psychache
    ·feeling of psychological pain that seems intolerable to the person
  146. egoistic suicide
    people over whom society has little or no control
  147. altruistic suicides
    committed by people who are so well integrated into their society that they intentionally sacrifice their lives for its well-being
  148. anomic suicide
    committed by peoplewhose social environment fails to provide stable structures that support and give meaning to life
  149. id
    • pleaure principle
    • instinctual drives, needs, and impulses
    • sexual-feuled by libido
  150. ego
    • reality principle
    • seekds gratification
    • lets us know when we can and can't express wishes
    • ego defense mechanism protect from anxiety
  151. super ego
    morality principle
  152. superego
    conscience: unconscously adopted from parents
  153. developmental stages
    • oral(0-18 months)
    • anal(18 months to 3 years)
    • phalic (3 to5 years)
    • latency (5 to 12 years)
    • genital (12 to adult)
  154. ego thoerist
    • psychodynamic
    • emphasize the ego; condier it independent
  155. self theorist
    • psychodynamic
    • emphasizes a unified personality
  156. object-relation theorist
    • psychodynamic
    • emphasize human need to interpersonal relationships
  157. free association
  158. resistance
  159. transference
  160. dream interpretation
  161. catharsis
  162. working through
  163. Behavioral Model
    • actions are determined largely by our experiences in life
    • behaviors and environmental factors
    • principles of learing
    • teacher rather than healer
    • focus on changing behavior
  164. Operant conditioning
    • behavioral
    • Humans and animals
    • learn to behave in certain ways as a result of receiving rewards whenever they do so
  165. modeling
    • behaviorist
    • Individuals learn responses by observing and repeating behavior
  166. Classical conditioning
    • behavioral
    • Learning by temporal association
    • When two events repeatedly occur close together in time, they become fused in a person’s mind; before long, the person responds in the same way to both events
  167. systematic desensitization
    • used for phobia
    • learn relaxation skills
    • construct a fear hierarchy
    • confront feared situations
  168. cognitive
    • account for behavior by studying the ways in which the person attends to, interprets, and uses available information
    • clinicians must ask questions about assumptions, attitudes, and thoughts of a client
    • internal processes
    • present focused
    • maladaptive thinking cause of maladaptive behavior
  169. Faulty thinking types
    • faulty assumptions and attitudes
    • illogical thining processes
    • ex:overgeneralization
  170. overgeneralization
  171. Beck's cognitive therapy
    • help clients recognize and restructure their thinking
    • guide clients to challenge their dysfunctional thoughts, try out new interpretations, and apply new ways of thinking in their daily lives
  172. combination model
    • humanistic- people as friendly, cooperative, and constructive; focus on drive to self-actualization
    • existentialist- self-determination, choice, and individual responsibility; focus on authenticity
  173. Rogers Humanistic Theory and Therapy
    • basic human need for unconditional positive regard- leads to unconditional self regard - if not leads to "conditions of worth"
    • Client centered therapy:
    • supportive climate
    • Unconditional positive regard
    • Accurate empathy
    • Genuineness
  174. Gestalt theory and therapy
    • Humanistic: ·Goal is to guide clients toward self-recognition through challenge and frustration
    • Skillful frustration
    • Role playing
    • Rules, including “Here and Now” and “I” language
  175. sociocultural
    • abnormal behavior is best understood in light of the social and cultural forces that influence an individual
    • norms, labels and roles in society
    • diagnosotic labels; sick role; social networks
    • Family strructure and comminication
  176. family-social treatments
    • group therapy
    • family therapy
    • couple therapy
    • community treatment
    • prevention work
  177. multicultural theorist
    • seek to understand how culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors affect behavior and thought, as well as how people of different cultures, races, and genders differ psychologically
    • greater sensitivity to cultural issues
    • inclusion of cultural models in treatment
  178. culture
    the set of values, attitudes, beliefs, history, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to the next
  179. diathesis-stress approach
    • prdisposition- bio psycho of social
    • reciprical effects explanation
    • ?
  180. research
    systematic search for facts through the use of careful observations and investigations
  181. the case study
    • a detailed, interpretative description of a person’s life and psychological problems
    • has low internal and external validity
  182. correlational method
    • degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other
    • Measures the strength of a relationship
    • Does not imply cause and effect
    • high external validity
    • lack internal validity-describe but do not explain a relationship
  183. Positive and
    Negative correlation
    • variables change in the same direction
    • slope up and to the right

    • variables change in the opposite direction
    • downward slop
  184. statistical significance
    • unlikely to have occured by chance
    • less than 5% probability that occured due to chance=significant-p<.o5
  185. epidemiological studies
    Reveal the incidence-number of new cases in a given period and prevalence-total number of cases in a given period, of a disorder in a particular population
  186. longitudinal studies
    over the same individuals on many occasions over a long period
  187. experimental method
    • a variable is manipulated and the manipulation’s effect on another variable is observed
    • causal possible
  188. confound
    variables other than the independent variable that may be affecting the dependent variable
  189. 3 features of an experiment
    • control group-not exposed to independent
    • random assignment- every participant in the experiment is as likely to be placed in one group as another
    • blind design- to avoid bias-participants are kept from knowing which condition of the study (experimental or control) they are in
  190. quasi-experimental
    do not randomly assign subjects to groups, but make use of groups that already exist
  191. natural experiments
    • nature manipulates the independent variable and the experimenter observes the effects
    • Cannot be replicated at will
    • Broad generalizations cannot be made
  192. Analogue experiments
    • allow investigators to freely manipulate independent variables while avoiding ethical and practical limitations
    • They induce laboratory subjects to behave in ways that seem to resemble real life
    • cannot be certain that the phenomena observed in the lab are the same as the psychological disorders being investigated
  193. single-subject experiment
    • single participant is observed both before and after manipulation of an independent variable
    • rely on baseline data to set a standard for comparison
  194. ABAB (reversal) designs
    • reactions are measured during a baseline period (A), after the introduction of the independent variable (B), after the removal of the independent variable (A), and after reintroduction of the independent variable (B)
    • The subject is, essentially, compared against himself or herself under different conditions rather than against control subjects
  195. multiple-baseline designs
    examines two or more dependent variables displayed by a participant and observes the effect that the manipulation of an independent variable has on each behavior
  196. abnormal psychology
    The field devoted to the scientific study of abnormal behavior to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning
  197. the four D's
    • Deviance – Different, extreme, unusual, perhaps even bizarre
    • Distress – Unpleasant and upsetting to the person
    • Dysfunction – Interfering with the person’s ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way
    • Danger – Posing risk of harm
  198. Szasz
    because of the influence of culture, the whole concept of mental illness is invalid, a myth of sorts·Societies invent the concept of mental illness to better control or change people who threaten social order
  199. Jerome Frank
    3 features of treatment
    • 1.sufferer who seeks relief from the healer
    • 2. trained socially accepted healer whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer and his or her social group
    • 3. a series of contacts between the two- healer tries to produce changes in emotional state, attitude and behavior
  200. % of people in any given year in need of treatment
    • 30%-adult
    • 19%-children
  201. historical views on treatment
    • ancient-evil spirits-trephination or exorcism
    • hippocrates-natural cause-unbalance of 4 humors-rebalance
    • the church-conflict between good and evil-demonology
    • renaissance-demonology declines-asylums increase-care improved-humane and loving treatment-intention good, buy asylums became like prisons
    • 1800-pinel and tuke-moral guidance-humane and respectful
    • end of 19th cent-end of moral-low money and staff-lower recovery-prejudice
    • early20th- moral gone-now to long term hospitilization
  202. somatogenic perspective
    Psychogenic perspective
    • abnormal funtioning has physical cause
    • abnormal functioning has psychological cause
  203. 1950's and treatment
    • psychotropic drugs discovered
    • anit: psychotic, depressant, and anxiety
    • deinsitutionalization and outpatient care
  204. positive psychology
    the study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities
  205. managed care program
    the dominant form of insurance coverage- the insurance company determines key care issues
  206. assessment
    • collecting relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion
    • determine how and why a person is behaving abnormally and how that person may be helped
  207. idiographic
    on an individual person
  208. three types of clinical assessment tools
    • clinical interviews
    • tests
    • observations
  209. assessment tools need what?
    • standardized-set up common steps to follow whenever administered-administration, scoring, and interpretation
    • clear reliability-consistency-same results in same situation
    • clear validity- accuracy of a test's results-measure what suppose to
  210. test-retestreliability
    interrater reliability
    yields the same results every time it is given to the same people

    different judges independently agree on how to score and interpret a particular test
  211. three types of validity
    • Face validity – a test appears to measure what it is supposed to measure; does not necessarily indicate true validity
    • Predictive validity – a test accurately predicts future characteristics or behavior
    • Concurrent validity – a test’s results agree with independent measures assessing similar characteristics or behavior
  212. clinical interviews
    • face-to-face encounters
    • collect detailed information, especially personal history, about a client
    • focus on whatever topics they consider most important
  213. unstructured vs.
    structured interview
    clinicians ask open-ended questions

    clinicians ask prepared questions, often from a published interview schedule- may include mental status exam
  214. clinical tests
    devices for gathering information about a few aspects of a person’s psychological functioning, from which broader information can be inferred
  215. 6 catagories of clinical tests
    • projective
    • personality inventories
    • resonse inventories
    • psychophysiological tests
    • neurological and neuropsychological
    • intelligence
  216. projective tests
    • interpret vague and ambiguous stimuli or follow open-ended instruction-mostly psychodynamic
    • roschach
    • thematic
    • sentence completion
    • drawings
  217. rorschach
    • projective
    • look at ink blots and interpret
  218. thematic apperception?
    • look at pictures and tell story, what is happening
    • ?
  219. personality inventories
    • measure broad personality characteristics
    • behaviors, beliefs and feelings
    • self reported-usually
    • minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-MMPI, now MMPI-2 since 1989;MMPI-A-adolescents
  220. minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
    • -MMPI, now MMPI-2 since 1989;MMPI-A-adolescents
    • 550 self-statements that can be answered “true,” “false,” or “cannot say”
    • Statements describe: Physical concerns; mood; morale; attitudes toward religion, sex, and social activities; and psychological symptoms
    • Assesses careless responding and lying
    • ten clinical scales
    • Scores range from 0 to 120 Above 70 = deviant
    • Graphed to create a “profile”
  221. response inventories
    • usually self-report
    • focus on one specific area of functioning
    • ex.-beck depression inventory;social skills;cognitive
  222. psychophysiological tests
    • Measure physiological response as an indication of psychological problems
    • Includes heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, galvanic skin response, and muscle contraction
    • Ex.- polygraph (lie detector)
  223. Neurological and
    neuropsychological tests
    • directly assess brain function by assessing brain structure and activity - EEG, PET scans, CAT scans, MRI??
    • indirectly assess brain function by assessing cognitive, perceptual, and motor functioning- Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test ?
  224. Intelligence tests
    • indirectly measure intellectual ability
    • Typically comprised of a series of tests assessing both verbal and nonverbal skills
    • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)?
  225. clinical observations
    • Systematic observations of behavior
    • Naturalistic
    • Analog
    • Self-monitoring
  226. naturalistic
    • occur in everyday environments - homes, schools, institutions, community
    • parent–child, sibling–child, or teacher–child
    • interactions
    • If naturalistic observation is impractical, analog observations are used in artificial settings
  227. ·Risk of “overload,” “observer drift,” and observer bias
  228. self monitoring
    People observe themselves and carefully record the frequency of certain behaviors, feelings, or cognitions as they occur over time
  229. syndromes
    clusters of symptoms
  230. ·DSM-IV-TR
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) Text Revision
    • Published in 1994, revised in 2000 (TR)
    • Lists approximately 400 disorders
    • Describes criteria for diagnoses, key clinical features, and related features that are often, but not always, present
  231. Axis 1
    Most frequently diagnosed disorders, except personality disorders and mental retardation
  232. Axis II
    • Personality disorders and mental retardation
    • Long-standing problems
  233. Axis III
    Relevant general medical conditions
  234. Axis IV
    Psychosocial and environmental problems
  235. Axis IV
    • Global assessment of psychological, social, and occupational functioning (GAF)
    • Current functioning and highest functioning in past year
    • 0–100 scale
  236. Anxiety vs.
    • state of immediate alarm in response to a serious, known threat to one’s well-being
    • state of alarm in response to a vague sense of threat or danger
  237. Anxiety Disorders
    • generalized anxiety Disorders
    • phobias
    • panic disorder
    • obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • -------
    • acute stress disorder
    • posttraumatic stress disorder
  238. Generalized anxiety disorder
    • by excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worry about practically anything--"free floating anxiety"
    • feel restless,keyed up,on edge,fatigue, difficulty concentating, muscle tension, sleep problems
    • must last 6 months
    • worry about almost anything and everything for at least 6 months iwth distress or impairment
  239. Phobias
    • Persistent and unreasonable fears of particular objects, activities, or situations
    • often avoid object or thoughts about it
  240. specific phobia
    social phobia
    Persistent fears of specific objects or situations

    Severe, persistent, and unreasonable fears of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur

    fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available- closely related to panic disorder, may lead to it
  241. stimulus generalization
    Responses to one stimulus are also elicited by similar stimuli
  242. Systematic desensitization
    • Teach relaxation skills
    • Create fear hierarchy
    • Pair relaxation with the feared objects or situations
    • Since relaxation is incompatible with fear, the relaxation response is thought to substitute for the fear response
    • invivo-live
    • covert-imaginal
  243. flooding
    forced non-graudal exposure
  244. modeling
    therapist confronts, while fearful person observes
  245. panic disorder
    • periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak, and pass
    • recurrent and unexpected
    • often fear will die, go crazy, or lose control
    • happen in absence of real threat!
    • Sufferers also experience dysfunctional changes in thinking and behavior as a result of the attacks
  246. biological challenge
    • cognitive for panic
    • induce panic sensations- ·Practice coping strategies and making more accurate interpretations
  247. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • Obsessions- Persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that seem to invade a person’s consciousness
    • Compulsions- Repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that people feel they must perform to prevent or reduce anxiety
    • disruption for more than an hour a day
    • obseesions cause axiety while obsessions are aimed at reducing it
    • believe catastophe will occure if do not peform act
  248. seperation anxiety disorder
    • one of most common child anxiety disorders
    • dominated by behavioral and somatic symptoms-all anxiety not just seperation
    • school phobia or school refusal- fear going to school and often stay home for a long period
  249. differences in adult and child depression?
  250. oppositional defiant disorder
    • repeated arguments with adults, loss of temper, anger, and resentment
    • ignore adult requests and rules, try to annoy people, and blame others for their mistakes and problems
    • M more than W before puberty, but = after
  251. conduct disorder
    • more sever than oppositional defient disorder
    • repeatedly violate the rights of others
    • They are often aggressive and may be physically cruel and violent to people and animals
    • Many steal from, threaten, or harm their victims, committing such crimes as shoplifting, vandalism, mugging, and armed robbery
    • sever cases continue in adulthood and develope into antisocial personality disorder or other psychological problems
  252. types of conduct disorder
    • overt destructive
    • overt non-destructive
    • covert destructtive
    • covert nondestructive
  253. relational aggression
    • individuals are socially isolated and primarily display social misdeeds
    • more common among girls than boys
  254. ADHD
    • great difficulty attending to tasks, behave overactively and impulsively, or both
    • Learning or communication problems; Poor school performance; Difficulty interacting with other children Misbehavior, often serious; Mood or anxiety problems
  255. Eliminatin disorder
    repeatedly urinate or pass feces in their clothes, in bed, or on the floor - not physically caused
  256. Enuresis
    • repeated involuntary (or in some cases intentional) bedwetting or wetting of one’s clothes - typically at night during sleep, but also during the day
    • have to be 5 to recieve diagnosis
  257. encopresis
    • repeatedly defecating in one’s clothing – is less common than enuresis and less well researched
    • usually involuntary
    • seldom occurs during sleep
    • starts at age 4
    • more common in boys
  258. long term disorders that begin in childhood
    • pervasive developmental disorder
    • mental retardation
  259. pervasive developmental disorders
    • group of disorders marked by impaired social interactions, unusual communications, and inappropriate responses to stimuli in the environment
    • autistic disorder
    • Asperger’s disorder
    • Rett’s disorder
    • childhood disintegrative disorder
  260. Autistic disorder
    • extremely unresponsive to others, uncommunicative, repetitive, and rigid
    • extreme aloofness and lack of interest in people
    • echolalia- exact echoing of phrases spoken by others
    • prominent reversal-confusion of pronouns
    • limited imaginative play and repetetive and rigid behavior- perservation of sameness
    • self stimulatory behaviors-jump, arm flap, faces
    • become attached to particular objects
    • symptoms appear before age 3
    • more common in boys
  261. asperger's
    • experience the kinds
    • of social deficits, impairments in expressiveness, idiosyncratic interests, and restricted and repetitive behaviors that characterize individuals with autism, but at the same time they often have normal intellectual, adaptive, and language skills
  262. types if asperegers
    • rule boys
    • logic boys
    • emotion boys
  263. Dementia
    deterioration of one’s memory and related cognitive faculties – is currently the most publicized and feared psychological problem among the elderly
  264. Geropsychology
    field of psychology dedicated to the mental health of elderly people
  265. antabuse?
  266. delusional disorder
    individuals develope beliefs that are false but not bizarre
  267. cognitive mishaps
    forgetting name, leaving without keys, normal and comon of sress or aging
  268. delirium
    • clouding of consiousness- greater difficuly concentrating, focusing attention, and thinking sequentially
    • misinterpretations, illusions, and hallucinations
    • massive conclusion- typically over short period of time-hours or days
  269. dementia
    • significant memory losses along with losses in other cognitive functions, such as abstract thinking or language
    • may also experience changes in personality and behavior
    • most commonly caused by brain diseaeses or injuries like alzheimers and stroke
  270. alzheimer's disease
    • most commom form on dementia
    • gradually progressive disease
    • early onset-middle age
    • late onset- after 65
    • time between onset and death is typically 8-10 yrs.
  271. structural changes in brain of alzheimers
    • neurofibrilary tangles- twisted protein fibers found within cells of hippocampus
    • senile plaques- sphere shaped depostits of a smalle molecule kown as the beta-amyloid protein that form in spaces between cells and hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and other brian regions and vessels
  272. familial alzheimers disease and and sporadic alzheimers
  273. short term memory
    • working memory, gathers new information
    • Information held in short-term memory must be transformed, or consolidated, into long-term memory if we are to hold on to it
  274. long term memory
    • accumulation of information that we have stored over the years
    • procedural- learned skills performed without needing to think about them or
    • declarative- names, dates, or other learned facts- normally more effected that procedural in cases of dementia
    • Remembering information stored in long-term memory is called retrieval
  275. brain structure important for memory
    • prefrontal lobes- hold information temporarily and continue working with as long as needed
    • temporal lobes and diencephalon- help transform short term to long term memory
  276. vascular dementia
    • multi-infarct dementia-
    • May follow a cerebrovascular accident, or stroke, during
    • which blood flow to specific areas of the brain was cut off, with resultant damage
    • symptoms begin suddenly rather than gradually
    • function in brain may continue to be active in parts not effected by stroke or damaged
  277. picks disease
    • dementia
    • rare disorder that affects the frontal and temporal lobes and is clinically similar to alzheimers
  278. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    • dementia
    • caused by slow acting virus, has symptoms that inculde sporadic movements
  279. huntington's disease
    an inherited progressive disease in which memory problems worsen over time, along with personality changes and mood difficulties
  280. parkinsons
    slowly progressive neurological disorder marked by tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness that can cause dementia
  281. social breakdown syndrome
    • most common pattern of decline from institutionalization
    • Extreme withdrawal, anger, and physical aggressiveness
    • Loss of interest in personal appearance and functioning
  282. milue therapy
    token economy
    • humanistic-social climate that promotes productive activity, self respect, individual responsibility- often leave at higher rates
    • behavioral- reawarded(tokens to be exchanged for dood, cigarettes, priveleges) when behave in socially acceptable ways, not reawarded when behave unacceptably
  283. extrapyramidal effects
    disturbing movement problems, appear to be caused by the drugs impact on the extrapyramidal parts of the brain
  284. neuroleptic malignant syndrome –
    • a severe potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic drugs
    • ·Symptoms include muscle rigidity, fever, altered consciousness, and improper functioning of the autonomic nervous system
  285. tardive dyskenesia
    • writhing or tic-like involuntary movements, usually of the mouth, lips, tongue, legs, or body
    • appears after 1 year use of antipsychotic meds