The ability to controlwhen and how emotions are expressed.
Unfamiliar events oftenbring developmental tendencies to the surface,as with the curious boy and his worriedbrother, who are attending Colorado’s PikesPeak or Bust Rodeo breakfast. Their attentivemother keeps the livelier boy calm and reassuresthe shy one.
Initiative Versus Guilt
Erikson’s third psychosocialcrisis, in which children undertakenew skills and activities and feel guiltywhen they do not succeed at them.
A person’s evaluation of his orher own worth, either in specifics (e.g.,intelligence, attractiveness) or overall.
A person’s understanding ofwho he or she is, in relation to self-esteem,appearance, personality, and various traits.
A drive, or reason topursue a goal, that comes from inside aperson, such as the need to feel smart orcompetent.
A drive, or reason topursue a goal, that arises from the need tohave one’s achievements rewarded fromoutside, perhaps by receiving material possessionsor another person’s esteem.
An illness or disorder ofthe mind.
Difficulty with emotionalregulation that involves expressingpowerful feelings through uncontrolledphysical or verbal outbursts, as by lashingout at other people or breaking things.
Difficulty with emotionalregulation that involves turning one’semotional distress inward, as by feelingexcessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless.
Play that mimicsaggression through wrestling, chasing, orhitting, but in which there is no intent toharm.
Pretend play in whichchildren act out various roles and themesin stories that they create.
An approach tochild rearing that is characterized by highbehavioral standards, strict punishment ofmisconduct, and little communication.
An approach to childrearing that is characterized by high nurturanceand communication but littlediscipline, guidance, or control.
An approach tochild rearing in which the parents set limitsbut listen to the child and are flexible.
An approach to child rearing in which the parentsare indifferent toward their childrenand unaware of what is going on in theirchildren’s lives.
The ability to understand theemotions and concerns of another person,especially when they differ from one’sown.
Feelings of dislike or even hatredfor another person.
Feelings and actionsthat are helpful and kind but are of noobvious benefit to oneself.
Feelings and actionsthat are deliberately hurtful or destructiveto another person.
Hurtful behaviorthat is intended to get or keep somethingthat another person has.
An impulsive retaliationfor another person’s intentional or accidentalaction, verbal or physical.
Unprovoked, repeatedphysical or verbal attack, especially onvictims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
A disciplinary techniquethat involves threatening to withdrawlove and support and that relies on a child’sfeelings of guilt and gratitude to theparents.
A disciplinary technique in which achild is separated from other people for aspecified time.
Biological differencesbetween males and females, in organs,hormones, and body type.
Differences in the rolesand behavior of males and females thatare prescribed by the culture.
Freud’s third stage of development,when the penis becomes the focusof concern and pleasure.
The unconscious desireof young boys to replace their father andwin their mother’s exclusive love.
In psychoanalytic theory, thejudgmental part of the personality thatinternalizes the moral standards of theparents.
The unconscious desire ofgirls to replace their mother and win theirfather’s exclusive love.
An attempt to defend one’sself-concept by taking on the behaviorsand attitudes of someone else.
A cognitive concept or generalbelief based on one’s experiences—inthis case, a child’s understanding of sexdifferences.
A balance, within one person, oftraditionally masculine and feminine psychologicalcharacteristics.
1. Regulation of emotions is crucial during the play years, whenchildren learn emotional control. Emotional regulation is madepossible by maturation of the brain, particularly of the prefrontalcortex, as well as by experiences with parents and peers.
2. In Erikson’s psychosocial theory, the crisis of initiative versusguilt occurs during early childhood. Children normally feel prideand self-esteem, sometimes mixed with feelings of guilt. Shame isalso evident, particularly in some cultures.
3. Children are usually internally motivated to try new thingsduring these years. Their high self-esteem makes them proud andadventuresome.
4. Both externalizing and internalizing problems indicate impairedself-control. Many severe emotional problems that indicatepsychopathology are first evident during these years.
5. Boys more often manifest externalizing behaviors and girlsinternalizing behaviors. For both sexes, brain maturation and thequality of early caregiving affect emotional control.
1. All young children enjoy playing—with other children of thesame sex, if possible, alone or with parents if not.
2. The specifics of play vary by setting and culture. In contemporarycities, most children’s social play occurs in day-care centers.
3. Boys are particularly likely to engage in rough-and-tumble play,learning social skills without hurting each other. Both sexes engagein dramatic play, with girls preferring more domestic, lessviolent themes.
Challenges for Parents 1
1. Three classic styles of parenting have been identified: authoritarian,permissive, and authoritative. Generally, children are moresuccessful and happy when their parents express warmth and setguidelines. Parenting that is rejecting and uninvolved is harmful.Punishment should fit not only the age and temperament of thechild but also the culture.
Challenges for Parents 2
2. Children are prime consumers of many kinds of media, usuallyfor several hours a day, often without their parents’ involvement.Content is crucial. The themes and characters of manytelevision programs can lead to increased aggression, as shown bylongitudinal research.
Moral Development 1
1. The sense of self and the social awareness of the young childbecome the foundation for morality. This is evident in both prosocialand antisocial behavior.
Moral Development 2
2. Children develop standards for aggression. Unprovoked injury(bullying) is considered wrong by children as well as by adults.
Moral Development 3
3. Parents’ choice of punishment can have long-term consequences.Physical punishment may teach lessons that parents donot want their children to learn. Other forms of punishment havelong-term consequences as well.
Becoming Boys and Girls 1
1. Even 2-year-olds correctly use sex-specific labels, and youngchildren become aware of gender differences in clothes, toys, futurecareers, and playmates. Gender stereotypes, favoritism, andsegregation peak at about age 6.
Becoming Boys and Girls 2
2. Freud emphasized that children are attracted to the oppositesexparent and eventually seek to identify, or align themselves,with the same-sex parent. Behaviorists hold that gender-related behaviors are learned through reinforcement and punishment(especially for males) and social modeling.
Becoming Boys and Girls 3
3. Cognitive theorists note that simplistic preoperational thinkingleads to gender schema and therefore stereotypes. Socioculturaltheorists point to the many male–female distinctions thatare apparent in every society and are taught to children.
Becoming Boys and Girls 4
4. An epigenetic explanation notes that some sex differencesresult from hormones affecting brain formation. Experiences enhanceor halt those neurological patterns.
Becoming Boys and Girls 5
5. Thus each theory has an explanation for the sex and genderdifferences that are apparent everywhere. Parents need to decidewhich differences are useful to encourage and which aredestructive.