requirement that plaintiffs have a serious interest in a case, which depends on whether they have sustained or are likely to sustain a direct and substantial injury from a party or an action of government
standing to sue
lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated
class action suits
a requirement that to be heard, a case must be capable of being settled as a matter of law rather than on other grounds as is commonly the case in legislative bodies
legal briefs submitted by a friend of court for the purpose of raising additional points of view and presenting info not contained in the briefs of the formal parties
amicus curiae briefs
the jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. these are the courts that determine the facts abouta case
the jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts. these courts do not review the factual record, only legal issues
91 federal courts of original jurisdiction. only federal courts in which trial are held and in which juries may be impaneled
appellate courts empowered to review all final decisions of district courts, except in rare cases.
courts of appeal
pinnacle of american judicial system. intereprets laws, resolves conflicts among states and maintains national supremacy in law
unwritten tradition whereby nominations for state-level federal judicial posts are not confirmed as if they are opposed by a senator of the presiden'ts party from the state in which the nominee will serve
presidential appointee and the third ranking office in the department of Justice
latin phrase meaning let the decision stand.
how similiar cases have been decided in the past
a view that the constitution should be interpreted according to the original intent of the framers. many conservatives support this view
how and whether court decisions are translated into actual policy, thereby affecting behavior of others
decision established Court's power of judicial review
Marbury v. Madison
the power of court to determine whether acts of Congress, and by implicaton the executive, are in accord with the consititution.
court case that held that the doctrine of executive privilege was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions
United States vs Nixon
judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving it to legislatures
judicial philosophy in which judges make bold policy decisions, even charting new constitutional ground.
doctrine developed by the federal courts and used as means to avoid deciding some cases, mainly those conflicts between president and congress