Child Development_VB_CH11

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Arielcriv
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147884
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Child Development_VB_CH11
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2012-04-16 02:10:07
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Child Development VB CH11
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Child Development_VB_CH11
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  1. Middle childhood
    The period between earlychildhood and early adolescence, approximatelyfrom ages 7 to 11.
  2. BMI (body mass index)
    A person’s weightin kilograms divided by the square ofheight in meters.
  3. Overweight
    In an adult, having a BMI of 25to 29. In a child, having a BMI above the85th percentile, according to the U.S. Centersfor Disease Control’s 1980 standardsfor children of a given age.
  4. Obesity
    In an adult, having a BMI of 30 ormore. In a child, having a BMI above the95th percentile, according to the U.S. Centersfor Disease Control’s 1980 standardsfor children of a given age.
  5. Asthma
    A chronic disease of the respiratorysystem in which inflammation narrows theairways from the nose and mouth to thelungs, causing difficulty in breathing. Signsand symptoms include wheezing, shortnessof breath, chest tightness, andcoughing.
  6. Reaction time
    The time it takes to respondto a stimulus, either physically (with areflexive movement such as an eye blink)or cognitively (with a thought).
  7. Selective attention
    The ability to concentrateon some stimuli while ignoring others.
  8. Automatization
    A process in which repetitionof a sequence of thoughts and actionsmakes the sequence routine, so that it nolonger requires conscious thought.
  9. Aptitude
    The potential to master a specificskill or to learn a certain body of knowledge.
  10. IQ test
    A test designed to measure intellectualaptitude, or ability to learn in school.Originally, intelligence was defined asmental age divided by chronological age,times 100—hence the term intelligencequotient, or IQ.
  11. Achievement test
    A measure of mastery orproficiency in reading, mathematics, writing,science, or some other subject.
  12. Wechsler Intelligence Scale forChildren (WISC)
    An IQ test designed for schoolagechildren. The test assesses potential inmany areas, including vocabulary, generalknowledge, memory, and spatial comprehension.
  13. Flynn effect
    The rise in average IQ scoresthat has occurred over the decades inmany nations.
  14. Mental retardation
    Literally, slow, or late,thinking. In practice, people are consideredmentally retarded if they score below 70 onan IQ test and if they are markedly behindtheir peers in adaptation to daily life.
  15. Developmental psychopathology
    The fieldthat uses insights into typical developmentto understand and remediate developmentaldisorders, and vice versa.
  16. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD)
    A condition in which a personnot only has great difficulty concentratingfor more than a few moments but also isinattentive, impulsive, and overactive.
  18. Comorbidity
    The presence of two or moreunrelated disease conditions at the sametime in the same person.
  19. Learning disability
    A marked delay in a particulararea of learning that is not caused byan apparent physical disability, by mentalretardation, or by an unusually stressfulhome environment.
  20. Dyslexia
    Unusual difficulty with reading;thought to be the result of some neurologicalunderdevelopment.
  21. Autism
    A developmental disorder markedby an inability to relate to other peoplenormally, extreme self-absorption, and aninability to acquire normal speech.
  22. Autistic spectrum disorder
    Any of severaldisorders characterized by inadequatesocial skills, impaired communication, andunusual play.
  23. Asperger syndrome
    A specific type ofautistic spectrum disorder, characterizedby extreme attention to details and deficientsocial understanding.
  24. Individual education plan (IEP)
    Individual education plan (IEP)
  25. Least restrictive environment (LRE)
    A legalrequirement that children with specialneeds be assigned to the most generaleducational context in which they can beexpected to learn.
  26. Resource room
    A room in which trainedteachers help children with special needs,using specialized curricula and equipment.
  27. Inclusion
    An approach to educating childrenwith special needs in which they areincluded in regular classrooms, with“appropriate aids and services,” asrequired by law.

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