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Concrete operational thought
Piaget’s termfor the ability to reason logically aboutdirect experiences and perceptions.
The logical principle that thingscan be organized into groups (or categoriesor classes) according to some characteristicthey have in common.
The logical principle that certaincharacteristics of an object remain thesame even if other characteristics change.
The logical principle that a thingthat has been changed can sometimes bereturned to its original state by reversingthe process by which it was changed.
A perspectivethat compares human thinkingprocesses, by analogy, to computeranalysis of data, including sensory input,connections, stored memories, andoutput.
The component of theinformation-processing system in whichincoming stimulus information is stored fora split second to allow it to be processed.(Also called the sensory register.)
The component of theinformation-processing system in whichcurrent conscious mental activity occurs.(Also called short-term memory.)
The component of theinformation-processing system in whichvirtually limitless amounts of informationcan be stored indefinitely.
A body of knowledge in aparticular area that makes it easier to masternew information in that area.
Mechanisms (includingselective attention, metacognition, andemotion regulation) that combine memory,processing speed, and knowledge to regulatethe analysis and flow of informationwithin the information-processing system.(Also called executive processes.)
“Thinking about thinking,”or the ability to evaluate a cognitive taskin order to determine how best to accomplishit, and then to monitor and adjustone’s performance on that task.
English-language learner (ELL)
A child whois learning English as a second language.
A change from one languageto another, which occurs not only in speakingand writing but also in the brain. Alanguage shift is evident in many childrenwho no longer speak or understand theirmother tongue because a new languagehas come to dominate the linguistic areasof their brains.
A strategy in which instruction inall school subjects occurs in the second(majority) language that a child is learning.
A strategy in whichschool subjects are taught in both thelearner’s original language and the second(majority) language.
ESL (English as a second language)
Anapproach to teaching English in which allchildren who do not speak English areplaced together in an intensive course tolearn basic English so that they can beeducated in the same classroom as nativeEnglish speakers.
Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)
Inaugurated in 2001, aplanned five-year cycle of internationaltrend studies in the reading ability offourth-graders.
TIMSS (Trends in Math andScience Study)
An international assessment ofthe math and science skills of fourth- andeighth-graders. Although the TIMSS is veryuseful, different countries’ scores are notalways comparable, because sampleselection, test administration, and contentvalidity are hard to keep uniform.
No Child Left Behind Act
A U.S. lawenacted in 2001 that was intended toincrease accountability in education byrequiring states to qualify for federaleducational funding by administeringstandardized tests to measure schoolachievement.
National Assessment of EducationalProgress (NAEP)
An ongoing and nationallyrepresentative measure of U.S.children’s achievement in reading, mathematics,and other subjects over time;nicknamed “the Nation’s Report Card.”
The unofficial, unstated,or implicit rules and priorities that influencethe academic curriculum and every otheraspect of learning in school.
Teaching reading by firstteaching the sounds of each letter and ofvarious letter combinations.
Teaching readingby encouraging early use of all languageskills—talking and listening, reading andwriting.
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