Social Influences

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  1. Social Psychology
    the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behavior influence, and are influenced by, the behavior of other
  2. social cognition
    mental processes associated with people's perceptions of, and reactions to, other people
  3. self-concept
    the way one thinks of oneself
  4. self-esteem
    the evaluation people make about how worth they are as human beings
  5. temporal comparison
    using one's pervious performance or characteristics as a basis for judging oneself in the present
  6. social comparison
    using other people as a basis of comparison for evaluating oneself
  7. reference groups
    categories of people to which people compare themselves
  8. relative deprivation
    the belief that, in comparison to a reference group, one is getting less than is deserved
  9. social identity
    the beliefs we hold about the groups to which we belong
  10. self-schemas
    mental representations that people form of themselves
  11. social perception
    the processes through which people interpret information about others, draw inferences about them, and develop mental representations of them
  12. self-fulfilling prophecy
    a process through which an initial impression of someone leads that person to behave in accordance with that impression
  13. attribution
    the process of explaining the causes of people's behavior; including the one's own
  14. fundamental attribution error
    a bias toward overattributing the behavior of others to internal causes
  15. actor-observer bias
    the tendency to attribute other people's behavior to internal causes while attributing one's own behavior (especially errors and failures) to external causes
  16. self-serving bias
    the tendency to attribute one's success to interal characteristics while blaming one's failures on external causes
  17. elaboration likelihood model
    a model suggesting that attritude change can be driven by evaluation of the content of a persuasive message (central route) or by irrelveant cues (peripheral route)
  18. cognitive dissonance theory
    a theory asserting that attitude change is driven by efforts to reduce tension caused by inconsistencies between attitudes and behaviors
  19. self-perception theory
    a theory suggesting that attitudes can change as people consider their behavior in certain situations and then infer what their attitude must be
  20. stereotypes
    false assumptions that all members of some group share the same characteristics
  21. prejudice
    a positive or negative attitude toward an entire group of people
  22. discrimination
    differential treatment of various groups; the behavioral component of prejudice
  23. contact hypnosis
    the idea that stereotypes and prejudice toward a group will diminish as contact with the group increases
  24. matching hypothesis
    the notion that people are most likely to form relationships with those who are similar to themselves in physical attractiveness
  25. social influence
    the process whereby one person's behavior is affected by the words or actions of others
  26. norms
    socially based rules that prescribe what people should or should not do in various situations
  27. deindividuation
    a psychological state occurring in group members that results in loss of individuality and a tendency to do things not normally done when alone
  28. socl facilitation
    a phenomenon in shich the presence of others improves a person's performance
  29. social impairment
    a reduction in performance due to the presence of other people
  30. social loafing
    exerting less effort when performing a group task than when performing the same task alone
  31. conformity
    changing one's behavior or beliefs to match those of others, generally as a result of real or imagined, though unspoken, group pressure
  32. compliance
    adjusting one's behavior because of an explicit or implicit request
  33. minority influence
    a phenomenon whereby members of a numerical minority in a group alter the view of the majority
  34. obedience
    changing behavior in response to a demand from an authority figure
  35. aggression
    an act that is intended to cause harm to another person
  36. frustation-aggression hypthesis
    a proposition that frustration always leads to some form of aggressive behavior
  37. environmental psychology
    the study of the relationship between behavior and the physical environment
  38. helping behavior
    any act that is intended to benefit another person
  39. altruism
    an unselfish concern for another's welfare
  40. arousal: cost-reward theory
    a theory attributing people's helping behavior to their efforts to reduce the unpleasant arousal they feel in the face or somone's need or suffering
  41. bystander effect
    a phenomenon in which the chances that someone will help in an emergency decrease as the umber of people present increases
  42. empathy-altruism
    a theory suggesting that people help others because of empathy with their needs
  43. cooperation
    any type of behavior in which people work together to attain a goal
  44. competition
    behavior in which individuals try to attain a goal for themselves while denying that goal to others
  45. conflict
    the result of a person's or group's belief that another person or group's belief that another person of group stands in the way of their achieving a valued goal
  46. social dilemmas
    situations in which actions that produce rewards for one indicidual will produce negative consequences if adopted by everyone
  47. prisoner's dilemma
    a social dilemma in which mutual cooperation guarantees the best mutual outcome
  48. resourceful dilemma
    a situation in which people must share a common resource, creating conflicts between the short-term interests of individuals and the long-term interests of the group
  49. zero-sum game
    a social situation in shich one person's gains are subtracted from another person's resources, so tht the sum of the gains and losses is zero
  50. task-oriented leaders
    leaders who provide close supervision, lead by directives, and generally discourage group discussion
  51. person-oriented leaders
    leaders who provide loose supervision, ask for group members' ideas, and are concerned with subordinates' feelings
  52. groupthink
    a pattern of thinking in which group members fail to evaluate realistically the wisdom of various options and decisions
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Social Influences
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