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The large intestine is a site for?
The large intestine includes what 6 parts?
Absorption of water, electrolytes, and vitamins and LUBRICATIN and moving solid feces.
- 1) Cecum
- 2) Ascending colon
- 3) Transverse colon
- 4) Descending colon
- 5) Sigmoid colon
- 6) Rectum
Where does the large intestine begin?
What is the ileo-cecal valve?
Begins at the ileo-cecal junction.
A sphincter formed from inner circular layer of muscularis externa
When does the Ascending Colon (AC) become the Transverse Colon (TC)?
When does the Transverse Colon become the Descending Colon (DC)?
The Vermiform (worm shape) Appendix is an extension of what part of the stomach?
AC becomes TC at the Right Colic (hepatic) Flexure.
TC becomes DC at the Left Colic (splenic) Flexure.
VA is an extension of the Cecum.
Define Taenia Coli ("ribbons' + "colon"); 3 in LI.
Define epiploic appendages.
Taenia coli: longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa.
Haustra: segments formed by the contraction of taenia coli.
Epiploic: fat-filled pouches hanging from the colon.
a) Large intestine Histology & Function.
What are Absorptive cells?
Does the L. intestine contain Villi?
Few or many Goblet cells?
Modified simple columnar cells for absorbing water & electrolytes.
MANY goblet cells.
b) Large Intestine Histology and Function.
Superficial or deep intestinal glands and crypts?
Few or many lyphoid nodules in submucosa?
What are Escherichia coli?
Abundant (very many).; NOT Peyer's patches.
E. Coli: species of bacteria found in the colon.
c) Large intestine histology & function.
What are the 2 layers of muscularis externa of smooth muscle?
- 1) inner circular
- 2) outer longitudinal (ribbons of the colon or Taenia Coli)
What does the rectum become?
Simple columnar epithelium becomes?
Becomes the anal canal
Simple Columnar epi. becomes Stratified squamous.
What is the function of the Anal Valve?
(Contains anal columns and anal sinuses)
Anal Valve: regulates movement of feces from rectum to anal canal.
What is the internal and external sphincter muscle composed of and which is involuntary/voluntary?
Internal spincter muscle: inner ciruclar smooth muscle (involuntary)
external spincter muscle: skeletal muscle, levator ani (voluntary)
Summary of Digestive Juices.
Oral Cavity (4)
Small intestine (2)
Large intestine (1)
- 1) salivary glands
- 2) parotid (serous): amylase & lysozyme
- 3) sublingual (mucus)
- 4) submandibular (both)
- 1) submucosal mucus glands
- 1) Mucus and neck cells
- 2) Parietal cells (HCL, IF)
- 3) Chief cells (pepsinogen)
- 4) Enteroendocrine (gastrin
- 1) Brunner's glands (submucosal mucus glands)
- 2) Enteroendocrine cells (cholecystokinin & secretin)
- Small Intestine
- 1) goblet cells (mucus)
- 2) paneth cells (lysozyme)
- Large intestine
- 1) More abundant goblet cells (mucus)
Summary: Epithelia, foldings, and submucosal glands.
Which parts of the digestive system consist of the epithelia: Stratified Squamous? (4)
Simple Columnar? (4)
- 1) Oral Cavity
- 2) Pharynx
- 3) Esophagus
- 4) anus
- 1) Stomach
- 2) Duodenum
- 3) Small intestine
- 4) Colon
Put the 4 foldings in order from the surface to deep. (4)
(hint: mucosa = surface)
- 1) Mucosa
- 2) Submucosa
- 3) Muscularis externa
- 4) Serosa
Name the contained parts in the Rectum.
Levatar ani muscle
(Both make up Anal Valve)
Internal/External Anal sphinctor muscle
Reminder: what is the lining of the Rectum?
What part of the rectum is "voluntary" during defacation of fecal matter from the rectum to the anal canal?
Which part of the rectum is "involuntary"
Voluntary: Levator ani muscle
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