269 exam 3

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  1. How do cochlear implants work?
    • behind the ear device (including microphone, speech processor, and transmitter coil)
    • transmitter and receiver/stimulator enables information to be sent to implanted electrodes
    • electrode array then stimulates available auditory nerve fibers
    • auditory nerve then sends the information to the brain so the person can perceive sound
  2. What does a 1 channel cochlear implant sound like?
    • static, not pleasant
    • can tell that there is a sound, but doesn't know what the sound is
  3. What does a 4 channel cochlear implant sound like?
    • could tell there was voice, but not understandable
    • fuzzy
    • robotic
  4. What does a 16 channel (mid 80's-90's) cochlear implant sound like?
    • can make out what is being said, but still sounds robotic
    • can tell whether the speaker is male or female
  5. What does a 22 channel cochlear implant sound like?
    • clearer, easier to undestand
    • still robot-like/hoarse
  6. Cochlear implant decisions incorporate more than just the medical-surgical aspect...
    • language preferences and usage
    • educational placement and training opportunities
    • psychological and social development
    • use of techological devices and aids
  7. Goal of cochlear implants
    • to function as a tool to enable the deaf children to develop language based on spoken commnunication
    • help user to perceive sound
  8. When a parent chooses a cochlear implant they should obtain all information about:
    • surgical procedure
    • surgical risks
    • post surgical auditory and speech training requirements
    • potential benefits
    • potential limitations
  9. History of interpreting prior to 1970s
    CODAs, other relatives, and volunteers provided most interpreting services
  10. Registry of interpreters for the daef (RID)
    • established in 1964
    • since then, the goal has been professionalism within the field of interpreting
    • all too often, family members are still asked to interpret for free
  11. Laws providing access to interpreters
    • rehabilitation act of 1973
    • idea (individuals with disabilities education act)
    • americans with disabilities act
  12. ADA description of "qualified interpreter"
    an interpreter who is able to interpret effectively, accurately and impartially both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary
  13. Interpreting
    between ASL and english, either sign-to-voice or voice-to-sign
  14. Transliterating
    between manually coded english or contact sign and english, either sign-to-voice or voice-to-sign
  15. National interpreter certification (NIC)
    • RID certification
    • NAD certification
  16. RID certification
    • CI- certificate of interpretation
    • CT- certificate of transliteration
    • SC- specialty certification (judicial system, deaf-blind, etc)
  17. NAD certification
    NAD I-V
  18. EIPA
    educational interpreter performance assessment
  19. State certification requirements
  20. Legislation in PA
    • as of july 2005, all interpreters in PA must possess national certification and be registered with the state
    • exceptions may be made for educational interpreters, for whom the EIPA applies, in some emergency and medical situations, in religious settings, and if a deaf person requests a non-certified interpreter
    • RID and NAD now require college degrees for interpreters
  21. RID testing process
    • written (must be passed before going to performance test)
    • performance test
    • maintenance of certification- 4 year cycle
  22. Written RID test
    evaulates knowledge of the two languages that you are proficient at (questions about grammar, laws, etc)
  23. Performance RID test
    • provide scenarios in which you must interpret (sign-to-voice and voice-to-sign), video taped, sent off to 3 evaluators
    • must meet certain score to recieve certification (if failed, you may retake the test)
  24. Interpreters accepting assignments
    • interpreters should not accept assignments for which they do not possess adequate skills, or in which they would not be able to maintain neutrality
    • friends, religious or political settings, conflict of interest, specialized vocabulary, queasiness factor
  25. Interpreter confidentiality
    • all info related to interpreting assignments must be kept confidential
    • there's a little bit of leeway in educational interpreting, discussions with the IEP team
  26. Specialized interpreting settings
    • education
    • legal
    • medical
    • mental health
    • religious
    • platform
    • deaf-blind
    • theatre
    • workplace
    • rehabilitation
    • 12-step programs
    • video interpreting
  27. Interpreting pitfalls
    • trust
    • dependency
    • blame
    • role conflicts
    • physical considerations
    • emotional stress
  28. Etiologies of deaf-blindness
    • about 200 different conditions are associated with vision and hearing losses
    • over half are genetic
  29. How many people in US are deaf-blind?
    • approx. 70,000
    • national census has identified over 10,000 children and youth
    • deaf-blindness may occur in 3 out of 100,000 births
  30. Federal definition of deaf-blindness
    deaf-blindness means concomitant hearing and vision impairments, the combination of which cuases such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness
  31. Usher's syndrome
    • inherited condition that causes:
    • a serious hearing loss that is usually present at birth or shortly thereafter
    • progressive vision loss caused by retinitis pigmentosa (RP)
  32. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP)
    a group of inherited diseases that cause night-blindness and peripheral (side) vision loss through the progressive degeneration of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye that is crucial for vision
  33. Who is affected by Usher's Syndrome?
    • approx. 3-6% of all deaf children and perhaps another 3-6% of hard-of-hearing children
    • in developed countries about 4 babies in every 100,000 births
  34. What causes Usher's Syndrome?
    inherited or passed from parents to their children through genes
  35. Genes for Usher's Syndrome
    • autosomal recessive, meaning:
    • 1. usher genes are located on chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes
    • 2. both parents must contribute the mutated gene to the child before the disorder is seen
  36. How is Usher's Syndrome diagnosed?
    • testing on both hearing and visual symptoms
    • visual function tests: visual fields and electroretinogram (ERG)
    • a retinal examination
    • hearing tests
    • balance tests for all patients age 10 and older
  37. Types of Usher's Syndrome?
    • type 1 (USH1)
    • type 2 (USH2)
    • type 3 (USH3)
    • together they account for approx 90-95% of all cases of children who have usher's syndrome
    • type 1 and 2 make up majority of cases
  38. Usher's syndrome type 1
    • profoundly deaf from birth
    • have severe balance problems (slow to sit down and rarely learn to walk before 18 months old)
    • little or no benefit from hearing aids (most use ASL)
    • usually begin to develop vision problems by age 10 (usually begin w/ difficulty seeing at night then tend to progress rapidly until complete blindness)
  39. Usher's syndrome type 2
    • born with moderate to severe hearing impairment and normal balance
    • use speech to communicate
    • visual problems progess more slowly
    • characterized by blind spots that begin to appear shortly after the teenage years
    • when an individual's vision deteriorates to blindness, his or her ability to speech read is lost
  40. Usher's syndrome type 3
    • normal hearing and normal to near-normal balance (hearing worsens over time, problems by teenage years, deaf by mid- to late adulthood)
    • night blindness usually begins sometime during puberty (blind spots appear by late teenage years to early adulthood, by mid-adulthood individual is usually blind)
  41. How is Usher's syndrome treated?
    • no cure
    • best treatment: early identification in order to begin educational programs, special training for family also
    • access to technology (hearing aids, ALDs, cochlear implants; orientation/mobility training; communication services and independent-living training)
  42. Provisions for those with Usher's Syndrome
    • family counseling
    • medical and educational diagnoses
    • itinerant home services
    • teacher training
    • instruction: includes the use of other senses; augementative devices; enlarged books, symbols and tactile objects
Card Set
269 exam 3
deafness and society
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