ap test chpt 5 6

Card Set Information

Author:
sjmjr
ID:
147960
Filename:
ap test chpt 5 6
Updated:
2012-04-19 18:18:27
Tags:
ap test chpt
Folders:

Description:
ap test chpt 5 6
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user sjmjr on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    Structures:
    • Skin
    • Hair
    • Nails
    • glands
  2. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    Functions:
    • Protection
    • sensation
    • Immunity
    • Temprature Regulation
    • Vitamin D Production
    • Excretion
  3. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    Skin (3 Layers)
    Epidermis:
    Superficial Layer of Epithelial Tissue
  4. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Skin (3 Layers)
    Dermis:
    Deep Layer of Connective Tissue Used in Structural Strength; Largest
  5. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Skin (3 Layers)
    Subcutaneus:
    Hypodermis; Loose Connective Tissue Connecting Skin To Underlying Structures
  6. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    Epidermis
    Avascular; seperated from dermis by basement membrane
  7. EPIDERMAL CELLS:
    Keratinocytes:
    Most cells; makes keratin for strength
  8. EPIDERMAL CELLS:
    melanocytes:
    skin color
  9. EPIDERMAL CELLS:
    langerhans:
    part of immune system
  10. EPIDERMAL CELLS:
    Merkel's:
    detect touch, pressure
  11. Epidermal Strata
    Stratum Basale:
    Bottom of cell; deepest portion of the epidermis; highly miotic
  12. Epidermal Strata
    Stratum spinosum:
    limited cell division
  13. Epidermal Strata
    Stratum Granulosm
    superficial layers
  14. Epidermal Strata
    Stratum Lucidum:
    Found in palms and soles
  15. Epidermal Strata
    Stratum Corneum
    most superficial
  16. Thick skin:
    HAS ALL 5 EPIDERAML STRATA; FOUND IN AREAS SUBJECT TO PRESSURE/FRICTION; FINGERPRINTS AND FOOTPRINTS
  17. Thin Skin:
    MORE FLEXIBLE; COVERS REST OF BODY; HAIR GROWS
  18. Callus
    INCREASE IN NUMBER OF STRATUM CORNEUM
  19. Skin Color
    Determined by three factors
    • Pigments
    • Blood Circulation
    • Thickness of Stratum Corneum
  20. PIGMENT:
    Melanin:
    • Provides Protection against UV light
    • colored brown to black
  21. PIGMENT
    CAROTENE:
    • YELLOW PIGMENT
    • ACCUMULATES IN STRATUM CORNEUM, ADIPOSE TISSUE AND SUBCUTANIUS MEMBRANE
  22. BLOOD CIRCULATION
    GIVES REDDISH HUE, INCREASES IN BLUSHING AND ANGER
  23. CYNOSIS
    BLUE COLOR DUE TO DECREASED O2
  24. DERMIS:
    • LARGEST PART OF SKIN
    • GIVES STRUCTUAL STRENGTH
    • CONTAINS NERVES, BLOOD VESSELS, HAIR FOLLICLES
  25. 2 LAYERS OF DERMIS
    PAPILLARY:
    SUPERFICIAL(OUTER) LAYER 1/5th AREOLAR w/ ELASTIC FIBERS. DERMAL PAPILLAE, CAPILLARY BEDS, FINGERPRINTS; FREE NERVE ENDINGS SENSE PAIN
  26. RECTICULAR:
    • DEEP (INNER) LAYER 4/5th DENSE IRREGULAR C.T.; COLLAGEN AND ELASTIC FIBERS
    • NERVES, OIL AND SWEAT GLANDS, HEAT SENSORS
  27. SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE ( HYPODERMIS, SUPERFICIAL FASCIA)
    LOOSE C.T. WITH COLLAGEN AND ELASTIC FIBERS CONTAINS ADIPOSE TISSUE AND MACROPHAGES
  28. HAIR:
    FOUND EVERYWHERE EXCEPT PALMS, SOLES, LIPS, NIPPLES, DISTAL PARTS OF FINGERS/TOES; ARRECTOR PILLI MUSCLES CAUSES HAIR TO STAND UP
  29. GLANDS (4):
    • 1) SEBACEOUS: MOST ACTIVE DURING PUBERTY w/ OILY SECRETIONS (SEBUM)
    • 2) SWEAT: MEROCRINE/ECCRINE: MOST COMMON; OPEN DIRECTLY ONTO SURFACE OF SKIN; HAVE OWN PORES; NUMEROUS IN PALMS/SOLES APOCRINE: ACTIVE AT PUBERTY; OPENS INTO HAIR FOLICLES
    • 3) CERUMINOUS: EARWAX; WORKS WITH HAIRS TO PREVENT ENTRY OF DIRT, BUGS
    • 4) MAMMORY: MODIFIES APOCRINE GLANDS
  30. NAILS
    CONSISTS OF NAIL BODY, CUTICLE, NAIL BED AND ROOT
  31. PHYSIOLOGY OF INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    PRIOTECTION
    PROTECTS AGAINST ABRASION, MICROORGANISIMS, UV RADIATION (MELANIN), BARRIER TO DIFFUSE WATER
  32. PHYSIOLOGY OF INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    SENSATION:
    • PRESSURE
    • TEMP
    • PAIN
    • HEAT
    • COLD
  33. PHYSIOLOGY OF INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    TEMP REGULATION:
    SWEATING AND RADIATION
  34. PHYSIOLOGY OF INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    VIT. D PRODUCTION: BEGINS IN SKIN
    STIMULATES UPTAKE OF Ca+ AND PO4 PROMOTES Ca+ AND PO4 RELEASE FROM BONES REDUCES Ca+ LOSS FROM KIDNEYS INCREASES BLOOD Ca+ LEVELS
  35. PHYSIOLOGY OF INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    EXCRETION:
    REMOVAL OF WASTE PRODUCTS FROM BODY (SWEAT REMOVES H2O, SALT, UREA)
  36. SKELETAL SYSTEM
    SUPPORT
    • BONE IS HARD/RIGID; CARTILAGE FLEXIBLE YET STRONG
    • LIGAMENTS CONNECT BONE TO BONE
  37. SKELETAL SYSTEM
    PROTECTION
    SKULL (BRAIN) RIBS, STERNUM (HEART, LUNGS)
  38. SKELETAL SYSTEM
    STORAGE
    Ca AND P ARE STORED/RELEASED WHEN NEEDED
  39. SKELETAL SYSTEM
    BLOOD CELLS
    PRODUCES BONE MARROW THAT GIVES RISE TO CELLS/PLATELETS
  40. COMPONENTS OF SKELETAL SYSTEM (4)
    • BONE
    • CARTILAGE (3 TYPES)
    • HYLINE (EXTERNAL EAR)
    • FIBROCARTILAGE (BETWEEN VERTABRAE)
    • ELASTIC
    • TENDONS (MUSCLE TO BONE)
    • LIGAMENTS (BONE TO BONE)
  41. CARTILAGE (CHONDRO)
    CHONDROBLASTS:
    FORM MATRIX
  42. CARTILAGE (CHONDRO)
    CHONDROCYTES:
    SURROUNDED BY MATRIX
  43. CARTILAGE (CHONDRO)
    PERICHONDRIUM:
    • DOUBLE LAYERED C.T. SHEATH
    • COVERS CARTILAGE EXCEPT AT ARTICULATIONS
  44. CARTILAGE (CHONDRO)
    ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
    COVERS BONE AT THE JOINT
  45. BONE CELLS
    OSTEOBLASTS
    FORMATION OF BONE THROUGH OSSIFICATION OR OSTEOGENESIS
  46. BONE CELLS
    OSSIFICATION:
    BONE FORMATION
  47. BONE CELLS
    OSTEOCYTES
    2 TYPES
    • MATURE BONE CELLS
    • LACUNE : SPACE OCCUPIED BY OSTEOCYTE CELL BODY
    • CANALICULI: CANALS OCCUPIED BY OSTEOCYTE PROCESSES
  48. BONE CELLS
    OSTEOCLASTES:
    REABSORBTION OF BONE
  49. Woven Bone:
    • Collagen fibers randomly oriented
    • formed during fetal development
    • fracture repair
  50. remodeling
    • removing old bone
    • adding new bone
    • woven bone remodeled into lamellar bone
  51. lamellar bone
    mature bone called lamellae (densely packed for strength and support)
  52. Spongy Bone
    Trabeculae; interconnecting rods/ plates of bone (like scaffolding) spaces filled w/ marrow and covered in endoteum
  53. Compact Bone
    • central/haversian canals
    • parallel to long axis
  54. osteons
    blood filled central canals
  55. lamellae
    • concentric- surrounds central canal
    • circumfrential on the periphry of bone
    • interstitial between the osteons
  56. circulation in bone
    perforating canal (volkmanns)
    direct flow of nutrients and wastes from vessels
  57. bone anatomy
    long-
    upper lower limbs (femur)
  58. bone anatomy
    short
    • carpals
    • tarsals
  59. bone anatomy
    flat
    • ribs
    • sternum
    • skull
  60. irregular
    • facial
    • vertebrae
  61. sesmoid
    bone embeded in a tendon (patella)
  62. Structure of Bone
    Diasphysis
    shaft, only has compact bone/osteons
  63. structure of bones
    epiphysis
    end of bone has spongy bone
  64. epiphyseal plate
    growth plate, hyaline cartilage
  65. epiphyseal line
    bone stops growing in length
  66. medullary cavity
    • red marrowin children
    • changes to yellow in limbs and skull
  67. petioseum
    • fibers of tendon become continous
    • sharpeys fibers penetrate into bone for strength
  68. endosteum
    lines all internal spaces including spongy bone
  69. flat bones
    • no diaphysis
    • epiphysis sandwich of spongey beteween compact bone
  70. short/irregular bone
    • no diaphysis and not elongated
    • compact bone surrounded by spongey bone center
  71. bone development
    intramembranous ossification
    • takes place in connective tissue membrane
    • forms many skull bones (mandable)
    • fontanels: large membrane covered spaces between developing skull bones
  72. bone development
    endochondral ossification
    formation begins at the end of fourth week of development
  73. bone growth
    growth in length occurs at the :
    epiphyseal plate
  74. formation of new cartilage by:
    • interstitial growth (length)
    • appostional growth (width)
  75. articular cartilage does not
    ossify
  76. closure of epiphyseal plate
    plate is ossified and becomes line between ages of 12 to 25
  77. Factors effecting bone growth
    size and shape of bones can be effected by
    nutrition and hormones
  78. nutrition (effect on bone growth)
    • lack of calcium can result in small bones
    • vitamin D - needed for calcium
    • absorbtion - lack of vitemin D can cause rickets in childhood
    • and osteomalicia in adults
  79. hormones (effect on bone growth)
    • growth hormone from pituitary
    • sex hormone causes growth at puberty
    • but can cause early closure of epiphyseal plate and stop growth
  80. bone repair
    hemotoma formation
    localized mass of blood from vessels but confined in an organ or space
  81. callus formation
    mass of tissue that forms at fracture site/connects broken ends macrophages clean up debris
  82. callus ossification
    callus replaced by woven, spongey bone
  83. bone remodeling
    • replacement of spongey bone by compact bone
    • scuplting of site by osteoclasts
  84. calcium homeostasis
    • bone is major site of calcium
    • levels of calcium in blood depend on movement of calcium into and out of bone
    • enters bone when osteoblast makes new bone
    • leaves bone when osteoclasts break down bone
    • hormones control blood calcium level calcitonin and PTH

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview