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What is x-ray?
an electromagnetic wave with high energy level and short wavelength that can peetrate solid objects.
Neclear energy is?
energy produced by fission of an atomic nucleus.
Radiopaque refers to....
something that does not permit the passage of x-rays. Bones are relatively radiopaque.
Contrast media is..
radiopaque substances used in radiography to permit visualization of internal structure.
a unit used to measure x-ray dosage in air.
a unit used to measure x-ray dosage in human beings
ROENTGEN EQUIVALENT in MAN
Rad is used
to measure actual absorbed dose of radiation.
radiation that causes ionization in the tissues that absorb it.
variants of a single chemical element that have different atomic weights and different charges.
Magnetic resonance imaging MRI
- uses a combination of nonionizing radiation and a stronge magnetic field to produce images of internal structures and soft tissues. used to diagnose cancer and other masses.
- Patient should avoid caffine for 4 hours before the examination, they should not wear eye makeup. patient must not have internal metallic materials present such as pacemakers.
directs high frequency sound waves through the skin and produces an image based on the echoes.
Tomography also called sectional imaging and body section radiography.
it allows the visualization of an organ or the body in cross-section.
Computed Tomography CT scan
a radiographic technique that shows a detailed, 360 degree cross-section of tissue structure.
a branch of medicine that uses radionuclides in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders.
Positron emission tomography PET
involves the injection of isotopes combined with other substances, such as glucose. it is useful for diagnosis of brain related conditions, such as epilepsy and parkinsons disease.
x-ray visualization of blood vessels after the intravascular introduction of contrast media.
rectal infusion of barium sulfate a radiopaqie contrast medium, which is retained in the lower intestinal tract during x-ray studies. the digestive tract must be totally empty. patients should have nothing by mouth for 8 hours before the test.
- ingestion of barium sulfate. used for radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and intestinal tract.
- Before the test the patient should have nothing to eat or drink for 12 hours.
similar to cholecystography and performed by a radiologist. the contrast medium is injected directly into the common bile duct during gallbladder surgery.
allows both structural and functional visualization of internal body structures directly on a screen. a contrast medium is needed. It is also called a radioscopy.
Intravenous pyelography IVP
radiological study of the urinary system in which a series of x-rays are taken after a contrast medium has been injected into a vein. aka excretory urography.
- radiological study of the spinal cord.
- Radiologist performs alumbar puncture, removes some cerebrospinal fluid and injects some radiopaque water-soluble contrast medium.
the radiologist injects the contrast medium thourgh a urethral catheter and takes a series of x-rays.
- radiological study of the salivary gland.
- patient sucks on a lemon wedge to open the duct. A catheter in inserted into the duct, and a contrast medium is introduced.
a sensing technique used for the detection of tumors. An infrared camera is used, which records variation in skin temperature. Warm ares appear light,and cool areas appear dark.
x-ray technique in which an image is produced electrically rather than chemically. used primarily for mammography.
use of radiation to treat diseases such as cancer by preventing cellular reproduction.
radiation therapy administered by a machin that is positioned at some distance from the patient. Teletherapy permits deeper penetration and is used primarily for deep tumors.
implanting of radioactive sources into localized tumor tissues that are to be treated for a specific period of time.
a radioactive isotope of iodine used in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. used mostly in thyroid conditions.
When using a contrast medium always as the patient of
any allergies to iodine, or shellfish.
ask the patient about allergies to contrast media, iodine, or shellfish. patient should eat a fat free dinner the evening before the examination and should not smoke or have any foods or liquids after midnight. the oral contrast medium should be taken 2 hours after dinner, and tablets should be taken 5 minutes apart.
avoid caffine for 10 days prior to the procedure will reduce the possibility of swelling and soreness. the patient should not use deodorant, powder,or perfume on the underarm are or breasts before the examination.
front to back x ray
back to front xray.
Lateral xray is
through the side.
Exposure to radiation
is cumulative which means it adds up to a total dosage over the years. the smount of exposure is measured in units called roentgens.
Personal safety in radiology.
all personnel should wear a lead shield when equipment is operating and a dosimeter.
Film storage should be
at 60 to 70 degrees F store packages on end not on top of each other.
Sequencing order for diagnostic studies
- 1. all x-ray examinations not requiring contrast media.
- 2. any laboratory studies or nuclear medicine procedure involving iodine uptake.
- 3. CT studies with IV contrast any time after iodine uptake blood studies.
- 4. Radiographic examinations of the urinary tract.
- 5. Radiographic examinations of the biliary system.
- 6. Fiberoptic studies gastroscopy, endoscopy, etc.
- 7. CT studies of the abdomen or pelvis should be done before barium studies.
- 8. Lower GI series Barium enema
- 9. UGI series Barium swallow.