BIO 205 Test #3 Blood

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Author:
ralejo
ID:
147970
Filename:
BIO 205 Test #3 Blood
Updated:
2012-04-16 18:08:08
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Blood
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BIO
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  1. Blood Functions
    • Transportation
    • Defense
    • Regulation
  2. Transportation of the Blood
    • To Tissue - oxygen, nutrients
    • To Lungs � Carbon dioxide
    • To Kidneys � Wastes
  3. Defense of the Blood
    • Protecting the body from foreign invaders
    • Phagocytosis of pathogens (anything that causes diseases)
    • Make antibodies
    • Blood clots
  4. Regulation of the Blood
    • Temperature
    • Body constricts when cold to prevent heat loss
    • Blood picks up skeletal muscle and takes up to surface to sweat
    • Water content
    • pH
    • Buffers help stabilize
    • Blood is slightly alkaline (7.4)
  5. Body Composition
    • Liquid in blood plasma (55%)
    • White blood cells and platelets (<1%)
    • Red blood cells (45%)
  6. Formed Elements
    • Red Blood Cells
    • White Blood Cells
    • Platelets
  7. Plasma
    • 90% water
    • 7% proteins
    • All except one made in liver
    • Albumin largest
    • 2% other molecules (oxygen, iron, nutrients, hormones, vitamins, wastes)
  8. Red Blood Cell: Erythrocyte
    • Rythro=red; cyte=cell
    • The �dip� makes it more flexible
    • Increases surface area for things to diffuse across
    • There is no nucleus (kicked out of the cell)
    • No mitochondria (No ATP)
    • Carries oxygen
    • 5,000,000
  9. Red Blood Cells contain Hemoglobin
    • 4 Globin chains
    • Heme on each
    • Iron in center � oxygen binds to iron
  10. Carbon Dioxide Transportation
    • CO2 + H2O ?H2CO3 ? H+ + HCO-3
    • H2CO3 = Carbonic Acid
  11. Erythrocyte Life Cycle
    • Lasts about 4 months
    • 2,000,000 per second
    • Globin recycled for protein production
    • Heme � minus iron; iron ions
    • Iron stored in liver or reused in bone marrow
    • Heme broken down
  12. Anemia
    • Don�t have enough red blod cells
    • Don�t have enough iron
    • Can�t carry as much oxygen
    • Iron Deiciency
    • Small pale cells
    • Tired
  13. Erythropoietin
    • Anemia?Hypoxia?Kidney?Erythropoietin?Bone Marrow?New Red Blood Cells?Normal Red Blood Cell Count
    • Low O2 tension at proximal tube?Epo?stimulates stem cells in bone marrow?Red Blood Cells precursor (series of steps)?(-) feedback on Epo?increased O2 carrying capacity
  14. Blood Doping
    • Take out blood so body will make more, blood put back into them
    • Went from 45% to 55% blood cells
    • Die of heart attack or stroke
  15. Blood Groups
    • A, B, AB, O
    • O is the most common
    • Black and Asians are most likely type B
    • Type A used to be �
  16. White Blood Cells: Leukocyte
    • 5-10 thousand
    • Diapedesis
    • Travels through blood
    • If there is injury, squeeze through lining of blood vessel
  17. Granulocytes
    • Granules in cytoplasm have enzymes to help defend against disease
    • Neutrophil
    • Eosinophil
    • Basophil
  18. Neutrophil
    • Neutral and don�t stain
    • Most common white blood cell type
    • Involved with fighting bacterial infections
  19. Eosinophil
    • Stained red
    • Active with allergies
    • Helps fight parasite infections
  20. Basophil
    • Stained blue
    • Least of White Blood Cells
    • Releases histamine in allergic reactions
  21. Agranulocytes
    • Monocyte
    • Lymphocyte
  22. Monocyte
    • Largest of White Blood Cells
    • Phagocytosis (macrophage; dendritic cell)
  23. Lymphocyte
    • 30% of Blood cells
    • Viral infection
    • B Cell; T Cell
  24. SCID
    Gene defect results in: No B cells; No T cells
  25. Leukemia
    • Cancer of white blood cells in blood
    • If in tissue, it�s called lymphoma
  26. Infectious Mononucleosis
    • Viral infection of lymphocytes
    • Virus in saliva
  27. Platelet: Thrombocyte
    • Not a cell, it is a ell fragment
    • Megakaryocytic�
    • Make 200,000,000,000
    • � million of platelets
    • Start clotting process
    • Need plasma proteins and Vitamin K
  28. Blood Clotting
    • 5-6 minutes to start clotting
    • Tissue releases chemicals then start clotting process
    • First inactive then active like a domino effect
    • Fibrin: �straws� traps other cells
  29. Hemophilia
    • Don�t have a certain clotting factor
    • On X chromosome, from mom
    • Men only have 1 X chromosome
    • They bleed to death and die

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