BIO 205 Test #3 Senses.txt

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Author:
ralejo
ID:
147974
Filename:
BIO 205 Test #3 Senses.txt
Updated:
2012-04-16 18:10:11
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Senses
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Bio
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  1. Receptor Types
    • Chemoreceptors
    • Photoreceptors
    • Mechanoreceptors
    • Thermoreceptors
  2. Chemoreceptors
    • Chemo=chemical
    • Taste, smell, pain
    • Blood pH
  3. Photoreceptors
    • Photo=light
    • In eye
  4. Mechanoreceptors
    • Mechanical forces
    • Hearing
    • Gravity/Motion (equilibrium)
    • Touch/pressure
    • Proprioception
  5. Thermoreceptors
    • In skin and hypothalamus
    • Increase/Decrease temperature
  6. How Sensation Occurs
    • Sensory receptor generates nerve impulse
    • Sensory neurons send input
    • Cerebral cortex consciously perceives stimulus
  7. Skin Receptors
    • Temperature receptors
    • Pressure receptors
    • Fine Touch Receptors
  8. Temperature receptors
    Free nerve endings in epidermis
  9. Pressure receptors
    • Ruffini end organs
    • Pacinian corpuscles (deep in dermis)
  10. Fine touch Receptors
    • Meissner corpuscles - in fingers the most
    • Merkel disks - where epidermis and dermis meets
    • Root hair plexus
  11. Smell
    • 10-20 million cells (modified neuron)
    • 1 axon and 1 dendrite do through small holes
    • Axons can get ripped off
    • When you get older, you need more stimuli
    • 80% of taste has to do with smell
  12. Taste
    • 5 tastes: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
    • Taste buds not on the surface
    • Taste hairs: Microvilli; Waiting for molecule to stimulate thermoreceptors
  13. Eyeball Anatomy
    • Sclera (white of the eye)
    • Cornea (bulges out)
    • Choroid (attaches to lens)
    • Iris (color part of eye)
    • Lens
    • Ciliary body
    • Pupil (black part of eye)
    • Retina (yellow area - nerves)
    • Optic nerve (blind spot)
  14. Rods
    • low light
    • black, white, and gray
    • periphery of retina
  15. Cones
    • more light
    • blue, red, green
    • center of retina
  16. Nearsighted
    • Can see up close
    • Blurry when far away
    • Eyeball too long
    • Need concave lens
  17. Farsighted
    • Can't see up close
    • Eyeball too short
    • Need convex lens
  18. Photoreceptors
    • Light comes in
    • Dark purple in cones (synapse at the end)
    • Rhodopsin pigment
    • Opsin: protein
    • Retinal: Vitamin A derivative
    • Optic nerve leaving retina (blind spot)
  19. Retinal Function
    • 100 million rods and cones
    • 3 layers of neurons:
    • 1. rods and cones (furthest from light)
    • 2. bipolar neurons
    • 3. ganglion cells (closest to light)
  20. Fovea centralis
    • dark spot
    • looking straight and no blind spot
  21. Visual cortex
    attach to occipital lobe
  22. Middle ear
    • tympanic membrane
    • eustachian tube
    • oval window
    • round window
  23. Cochlear Duct
    • Snail
    • Bony compartment and membranous part inside
    • Fluid inside
  24. Auditory Pathway
    • Amplify sound by 20 folds
    • Everything starts moving along fluid
    • Hair cells in spinal cord
  25. Rotational Equilibrium
    Related to semicircular ducts
  26. Gravitational equilibrium
    Related to utricle and saccule
  27. Hair Cells & Cupola
    • These are cilia (hair cells)
    • Stuck in cupola
  28. Effects of Prolonged Spinning
    • Cupola will spin at the same speed of body
    • When you stop, cupola will keep spinning
  29. Vertical plane movement
    • Mechanoreceptors in saccule
    • Up and down without getting sick
  30. Horizontal plane movement
    • Mechanoreceptors in utricle
    • Side to side
  31. Hair Cells and Otholiths
    • Like a paint brush (angled)
    • Hair cells on gelatinous membrane
    • Oto: hair
    • Liths: stones
  32. Effects of Head Movement
    • Stones pull on surface
    • Pulling hair cells in one direction
    • Increases impulses in brain

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