psych 2301

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psych 2301
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psychology
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  1. Psychology
    the science of behavior and mental processes
  2. Positive Psychology
    a field of research that focuses on people's positive experiences and characteristics, such as happiness, optimism, and resilience
  3. Biological Psychologists
    Psychologists who analyze the biological factors influencing behavior and mental processes.
  4. Cognitive Psychologists
    Psychologists who study the mental processes underlying judgment, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human thought or cognition. Also called experimental psychologists. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 005)
  5. Engineering Psychology
    a field in which psychologists study human factors in the use of equipment and help designers create better versions of that equipment
  6. Developmental Psychologists
    Psychologists who seek to understand, describe, and explore how behavior and mental processes change over the course of a life time
  7. Personality Psychologists
    Psychologists who study the characteristics that make individuals similar to, or different from, one another. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 005)
  8. Clinical and Counseling Psychologists
    Psychologists who seek to assess, understand, and change abnormal behavior
  9. Community Psychologists
    Psychologists who work to obtain psychological services for people in need of help and to prevent psychological disorders by working for changes in social systems. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 006)
  10. Health Psychologists
    Psychologists who study the effects of behavior and mental processes on health and illness, and vice versa
  11. Educational Psychologists
    Psychologists who study methods by which instructors teach and students learn and who apply their results to improving those methods. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 007)
  12. School Psychologists
    Psychologists who test IQs, diagnose students academic problems, and set up programs to improve students achievement. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 007)
  13. Social Psychologists
    Psychologists who study how people influence one anothers behavior and mental processes, individually and in groups. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 007)
  14. Industrial and Organizational Psychologists
    Study behavior of people and work, like those in organizations
  15. Quantitative Psychologists
    Psychologists who develop and use statistical tools to analyze research data. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 008)
  16. Sport Psychologists
    Psychologists who explore the relationships between athletic performance and such psychological variables as motivation and emotion. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 008)
  17. Forensic Psychologists
    Psychologists who assist in jury selection, evaluate defendants mental competence to stand trial, and deal with other issues involving psychology and the law. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 008)
  18. Environmental Psychologists
    Psychologists who study the effects of the physical environment on behavior and mental processes. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 008)
  19. Neuroscience
    the field devoted to understanding how the brain creates thoughts, feelings, motives, consciousness, memories, and other mental processes
  20. Consciousness
    awareness of ourselves and our environment
  21. Biological Approach
    An approach to psychology in which behavior and behavior disorders are seen as the result of physical processes, especially those relating to the brain and to hormones and other chemicals
  22. Evolutionary Approach
    An approach to psychology that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive aspects of behavior and mental processes
  23. Psychodynamic Approach
    Psychological approach developed by Sigmund Freud. Emphasizes the interplay of unconscious psychological processes in determining human thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
  24. Terminal Drop
    A sharp decline in mental functioning that tends to occur in late adulthood, a few years or months before death.
  25. Generativity
    in Erikson's theory, a process of making a commitment beyond oneself ex:to family, work, or future generations
  26. PostConventional Reasoning
    Reasoning that reflects moral judgments based on personal standards or universal principles of justice, equality, and respect for human life.
  27. Conventional Reasoning
    Reasoning that reflects the belief that morality consists of following rules and conventions.
  28. Preconventional Reasoning
    Reasoning that is not yet based on the conventions or rules that guide social interactions in society
  29. Formal Operational Stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
  30. Concrete Operations
    Piaget's stage in which children learn such concepts as conservation and mathematical transformations; about 7 - 11 years of age
  31. Conservation
    the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
  32. Preoperational Stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
  33. Object Permanence
    recognition that things continue to exist even though hidden from sight; infants generally gain this after 3 to 7 months of age
  34. Sensorimotor Stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
  35. Accomodation
    a mental process that restructures existing schemas so that the new info is better understood ex:a child's schema of a bird includes any flying object, until they learn that a butterfly or a plane is not a bird
  36. Assimilation
    the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
  37. Sleep Terror Disorder
    Occurrence of horrific dream images during stage 4 sleep, followed by a rapid awakening in a state of intense fear
  38. Nonstate Theories of Hypnosis
    Proposing the Hypnosis does not create an altered state of consciousness
  39. Circadian Rhythm
    the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
  40. Preconscious Level
    a level of mental activity that is not currently conscious but of which we can easily become conscious
  41. Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same
  42. Learned Helplessness
    Condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable.
  43. Cognitive Approach
    A way of looking at human behavior that emphasizes research on how the brain takes in information, creates perceptions, forms and retrieves memories, processes information, and generates integrated patterns of action. (Bernstein Psychology 8e p. 020)
  44. Behavioral Approach
    An approach to psychology emphasizing that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned, especially from rewards and punishments
  45. Psychodynamic Approach
    Psychological approach developed by Sigmund Freud. Emphasizes the interplay of unconscious psychological processes in determining human thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
  46. Evolutionary Approach
    An approach to psychology that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive aspects of behavior and mental processes
  47. Neuroscience
    the field devoted to understanding how the brain creates thoughts, feelings, motives, consciousness, memories, and other mental processes
  48. Operational Definition
    a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
  49. Reliability
    the degree to which an observed difference in sample means reflects a real difference in population means and is not attributable to chance, the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
  50. Confound
    In an experiment, any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable
  51. Epigenetics
    the scientific study of changes in the expression of a gene or set of genes that occur without change in the DNA sequence
  52. Experimenter Bias
    (psychology) bias introduced by an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment can be subtly communicated to the participants in the experiment

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