Immunity notes.txt

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Immunity notes.txt
2012-04-16 18:20:42

bio 205
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  1. Immunity
    • Barriers to Entry
    • Physical Barriers
    • Chemical Barriers
    • Resident Bacteria
  2. Physical Barriers
    • Skin
    • Mucous membranes
    • Cilia
  3. Chemical Barriers
    • Oil
    • Sweat
    • Saliva
    • urine
    • Secretions
  4. Resident Bacteria
    Normal bacteria we have and need to be alive
  5. Inflammation
    • Heat
    • Redness
    • Swelling
    • Pain
    • Loss of Function
  6. Inflammatory Response
    • Tissue Injury ? Histamine Release ? Increased blood flow
    • Histamine cause blood vessel to dilate
    • Dilated blood vessels increases blood flow to the area, causes it to get warmer
    • Increased bloow flow turns the area red
    • Blood vessel starts leaking fluid
    • Fluid leaks out ? White Blood Cells diapdesis Platelets ? Clotting
    • Phagocytes (neutrophils and macophages) eat debris and bacteria
    • Loss of function due to swelling
  7. Complement
    • Another plasma protein system
    • Have it because its going to lead to membrane attack complex
  8. Membrane Attack Complex
    Lipid bilayer creates circles with the C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9s, and forms and creates a circle on the surface of the membrane of the pathogen
  9. Interferon
    • Activated when virus goes to nucleus of cell
    • Can only prevent from pathogens, cannot kill an already infected cell
    • Stimulates cell to turn on genes for antiviral proteins
    • Antiviral proteins block viral reproduction
  10. Special Defenses
    • Target=molecule that immune system recognizes as foreign. It is the antigen. Foreign invader.
    • Special forces
    • Targets antigens
    • Depends on lymphocyte action
  11. B Cell and T Cell
    Types of lymphocytes
  12. B Cells: Antibody Mediated Immunity
    • B Cell Receptors + Specific antigen ? activated B cell
    • activated splits into two cells
    • Plasma Cells ? is an activated B cell
    • Plasma cells make antibodies
    • Memory Cells ? is an activated B cell
    • Memory Cells stick around for life in case antigen shows up again
  13. Apoptosis
    • Pre-programmed cell suicide
    • ex) babies webbed fingers. Those cells died off in apoptosis
  14. Antibody Structure
    • Y-shaped structures
    • AG-Antigen
    • AB-antibody
  15. Examples of Ab-Ag Reactions
    • Ab reacts with Ag and coats completely, neutralizing it
    • Ab coating makes it easier for Ag to be seen and engulfed
    • Ab forms complex with Ag which attracts White Blood Cells
  16. Antibody Mediated Immunity
    • 1. B Lymphocytes...
    • 2. rise to plasma cell, which secretes antibodies
    • 3. Antibodies bind to antigens on bacteria, marking the bacteria for destruction
    • 4. Antibody-coating bacteria are avidly phagocytized
  17. T Cells: Cell mediated Immunity
    • T cell receptor can't recognize antigen without help
    • Macrophage engulfs Ag
    • Antigen Presenting Cell � takes antigen and puts part of it on its surface so T-cell can recognize it, and the T-cell can bind to the antigen presenting cell
    • T-Cell activated
  18. T-cell subtypes
    • Cytotoxic T-Cell
    • Helper T-Cell
  19. Cytotoxic T Cell
    • Toxic to the cell
    • Cell is going to die
  20. Cytotoxic T Cell in Action
    • 1. T Lymphocyte...
    • 2. Binds to target cell, secretes proteins that lyse the cell's membrane, and signals the cell to die
    • 3. T Lymphocyte detaches and
    • 4. Target cell dies by apoptosis
  21. Helper T-Cells affect B cell action
    • Make memory T-cells
    • T cells tell B cells to start going, and then tells to stop
  22. Primary Immune Response
    IgG takes longest to start working
  23. Secondary Immune Response
    • IgG works sooner and more
    • Much faster response and much stronger response
  24. Acquired Immunity
    • Not born with it
    • Active Immunity
    • Passive Immunity
  25. Active Immunity
    Where the body makes its own antibodies. Given the immunization through a vaccine (which is the antigen which causes the antibodies response. Can be alive, dead, or accommodate DNA)
  26. Passive Immunity
    • Ready-made antibodies. Give you the antibodies
    • Ex) Breast milk for the babies, because the babies are not able to make their own antibodies sufficiently.
    • Prevents them from getting sick
  27. Seasonal Allergies
    • Once exposed, will make lot of antibodies
    • IgE attaches to Mast Cell (basophil, granules pre-filled with histamine)
    • When encountered again, IgE mast cell binds to antibody-coated
    • Mast cell releases chemicals (histamine) ? symptoms
  28. Auto-Immune Disease
    • Immune system attacks the body itself
    • Recognizes something in you as foreign when it is not foreign
    • Can test by seeing if there are antibodies against something there shouldn't be antibodies against
    • Affect any part of the body