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  1. Ventilation
  2. Breathing
    • Inspiration/Inhalation
    • Expiration/Exhalation
  3. Gas Exchange
    Oxygen needed for body for cellular respiration and production of ATP
  4. Upper Respiratory Tract
    • Nasal Cavity
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
  5. Lower Respiratory Tract
    • Trachea
    • Bronchial Tree
    • Lungs
  6. Nasal Cavity
    Air gets humidified
  7. Pharynx
    • Send air into pharynx
    • Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and Laryngopharynx
  8. Larynx
    • Elastic cartilage in epiglottis
    • Vocal cords
  9. Vocal Cords
    • Longer they are the deeper they sound
    • The shorter they are, the higher the pitch
  10. Trachea
    • C-shaped rings of cartilage (in windpipe) to prevent it from collapsing on itself
    • C-shaped because it allows the trachea to collapse slightly to allow food to pass down the esophagus
  11. Bronchial Tree
    • Less and less cartilage as you go along the bronchial tree
    • Distal Bronchial Tree ? end of bronchiole will open into the air filled spaces (alveolus)
  12. Lungs
    • 3 lobes on the left (because heart is on the left)
    • 2 lobes on the right
    • Left side off at an angle
    • Right side goes more straight down
  13. Alveolus
    • Bathed in a capillary bed
    • 300 million alveoli
    • simple squamous
    • Site of Gas Exchange
    • Alveolar macrophage
    • Gets rid of any Debris
  14. Inhalation
    • When you breathe in, ribs raise up/out
    • Thorax enlarges
    • Diaphragm contracts/flattens
    • Pressure goes down because cavity is larger, and pressure is greater outside
    • Air goes from higher pressure to lower pressure
    • When muscles contract, air goes to lower pressure
    • Muscles moving makes the air move
  15. Exhalation
    • Muscles used to raise the ribs are relaxing, and now lowering
    • Thorax contracts
    • Diaphragm relaxes/rises
    • Ribs move down/in
    • Pressure goes up because cavity is smaller
    • Pressure is greater inside than outside
  16. Tidal Volume
    Air inhaled/exhaled with normal breathing at rest
  17. Inspiratory Reserve Volume
    AFTER a normal inspiration, the extra air when you suck in as much as possible
  18. Expiratory Reserve Volume
    AFTER a normal exhalation, the extra air when you blow out as much air as possible
  19. Residual volume
    The air that is left in your lungs AFTER you blow out everything you can
  20. Vital Capacity
    • AFTER taking a maximal inhalation, the total amount of air you can exhale
  21. Total Lung Capacity
    After the maximal inhalation, the total amount of air found in lungs
  22. Nervous Control of Ventilation
    • Respiratory Control Center
    • Located in medulla oblongata and pons
  23. Gas Exchange
    • External Respiration
    • Internal Respiration
  24. External Respiration
    • In Lungs
    • Exchange of gases between alveolar air and blood
    • Higher oxygen content in the alveoli than in the air
    • Hb+O2=HbO2
  25. Internal Respiration
    • Between the blood and the actual tissue cells
    • Get carbon dioxide from the tissue into the blood
    • In tissues. Exchange of gases between blood and cells
  26. Chemical Control of Ventilation
    CO2 + H20 ? H2CO3 (carbonic acid) ? H+ + HCO3-
  27. What separates the Upper Respiratory Area from the Lower Respiratory Area?
    Vocal Cords
  28. Upper Respiratory Infection
    • The cold is an upper respiratory infections
    • Viral infection
    • Sinusitis
    • Otitis Media
    • Swimmer Ear Infection
    • Laryngitis
  29. Lower Respiratory Infection
    • Bronchitis
    • Pneumonia
    • Tuberculosis
    • Asthma
    • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
  30. Sinusitis
    Sinuses are air filled spaces that are supposed to be for air, but instead, get filled with mucus when sinusitis sets in
  31. Otitis Media
    • Middle Ear Infection
    • Fever
    • Dizziness
    • Can't hear
    • Sounds like you're under water
  32. Swimmer Ear infection
    Outer ear infection
  33. Laryngitis
    • Inflammation of the larynx
    • Vocal cords get damaged
  34. Bronchitis
    • Infection of the bronchi
    • Mucus/puss in the bronchi that is swollen
  35. Pneumonia
    • Infection viral or bacterial in the lungs
    • Bronchi and alveoli are filled with mucus
    • Thickened and irritated alveolar walls with accumulation of mucus and inflammatory cells
    • Coughing up mucus is a sign of recovery
  36. Tuberculosis
    Infectious disease caused by various mycobacteria
  37. Two Components of Asthma
    • Inflammation
    • Airway Constriction (by bronchial smooth muscle)
    • Steroids prevent inflammation
  38. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
    • Odorless, colorless
    • Product of incomplete combustion of organic matter due to insufficient oxygen supply to enable complete oxidation to carbon dioxide
  39. Smoking
    • City dweller and light smoker lungs look the same: Little black
    • Smokers lungs: Very black
    • Nicotine causes blood vessels to constrict
  40. Emphysema
    • Alveolar wall destruction
    • Alveolus are site of gas exchange
  41. COPD: Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
    • Chronic bronchitis
    • Emphysema
  42. Lung Cancer
    • Shows similar symptoms of pneumonia
    • Until x-rayed and can see the tumors in lungs
  43. Reasons to Quit Smoking
    • smokers die younger
    • smell bad
    • 10X more wrinkles
    • Yellow fingers and teeth
    • Bone loss
    • Pale skin
    • Major cause of depression
    • Expensive
    • worse PMS
  44. Internal respiration
    From blood to actual tissues
  45. External Respiration
    Outside air to the blood
Card Set:
2012-04-16 22:22:01

Bio 205
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