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- Nomadic Shepherds
- Not Greek in culture
- Divided into Upper (western) Macedonia and Lower (eastern) Macedonia
mountainous and wild (i.g. tibber, forests, natural and wild)
plains and properous (i.g. plains near sea. No real structure)
Describe Macedonia before Phillip II
- Ruled by kings.
- Athens dominated kings.
- No concept of Poleis (city-states) like Greece.
- No hoplites or army
a few hundred noble horseman who helped the king rule.
Describe Macedonia before Phillip II
- Alexander I (498-454 B.C.)- controlled the feuding Kings Companions.
- Persia withdraws 479 B.C. and he gained control of Upper Macedonia.
- Embraces Greek culture. Insists family came from Argos.
- Entered Olympic games as proof of his Greekness.
city Athens founded to control Macedonian resources.
Greek style capital city created by King Archelaos (413-399 B.C.)
- made concessions to Thebes and Athens.
- Lost Upper Macedonia to Illyrians and paid them tribute.
- Marries Eurydice and has three sons (Alexander II, Peredicca, Philip II).
A rough group from Upper Macedonia who were paid to stay in Upper Macedonia, which they agreed to.
An ancient city of northeast Greece on the Chalcidice Peninsula. It opposed the threats of Athens and Sparta but was captured briefly by Athens and subjugated by Sparta in 379. Philip of Macedon destroyed the city in 348.
Why was Phillip II sent to Thebes as Hostage?
He was sent to Thebes by Ptolemy in order to kill Alexander II to gain his power and marry his wife Eurydice
What did Phillip II learn in Thebes
He learned from the most advanced military thinkers in Greece
Philip’s Struggle for Survival.
- Army acclaims him king.
- No army.
- Illyrians want to invade.
- Kills his Rivals in Pella.
- Renews tribute to Illyrians.
- Marries Illyrian princess.
- Starts rebuilding army.
Why was the city of Philipi founded?
Found to protect King Philips mines
What was the Social War?
A war between Athens and there allies
Neighboring poleis of Delphi
- Area around Delphi.
- Phocis sizes Delphi, takes money from treasury and hires mercenaries.
- Athens and Sparta allied with Phocis.
- Thebes pushes Amphictyonic League to declare war against Phocis.
Greeks should unite behind Athens against Persia
Deliver his philippica when Philip courts Athens
Place were Philip faught Athens. Alexander lead the army and destroyed the Theban Sacred Band
Theban Sacred Band
150 pairs of trained fighter and lovers
How was Philip murdered?
After walking in a temple behind 13 statues of gods, the last of him, Philip is stabbed in the heart by a body guard and dies instantly (or Pausanians)
Why is Philip murdered?
Pausanias murders Philip because he eas Philips lover and was jealous when Philip became interested in another lover. Pausanians was gang raped constantly and when asked for Philips help, he was denied. He waas happy to kill Philip.
What were some early battles for Alexander the Great?
- at the Branicu River
- The Battle od Issus
Who was Hephaestion?
Alexanders lover and best friend. Like Achilles
The Gordian Knot
An intricate knot tied by King Gordius of Phrygia and cut by Alexander the Great with his sword after hearing an oracle promise that whoever could undo it would be the next ruler of Asia.
How did Alexander take Tyre?
- Alexander built a land bridge to it.
- Alexander then conquers Egypt and maps out a new city—Alexandria.
- Egypt proclaimed him a god.
How did Alexander win the Battle of Gaugamela?
Alexander attacks in a V formation. This makes him appear weaker. Darius commits more men to attack. Eventually few are protecting Darius and Alexander attacks. Darius fled.
How did Darius III die?
- Bessus, Darius’ Calvary commander wants to temporarily be in command. Darius says no and Bessus orders Darius murdered.
- Alexander’s army finally conquers Darius’ and find’s Darius’ stabbed and dying.
- Alexander buried him like a king and mutilated Bessus.
What happened in India?
Alexander and army fight Porus, the strongest king in India
What were some of the outcomes of Alexander the Great's war?
He lost his best men due to disease and from fighting Porus. His horse, Bucephalas died. A million people dies from his 13 years of war. Famine and choas killed another 2 million. This changes Greek history, and spread Greek culture through the Near East.
- Nothing can be known
- Can make plausible impressions
- Founded by Diognenes
- Free yourslef of desire and you will be happy
- wealth, status, honor are empty
- one should pursue honor
- gave diatribes
- founded by Epicurus
- . Said there are two kinds of pleasure, positive and negative
- .positive is enjoying food, sex, and music
- Negative is absence of pain. Negative is prefered because positive is transitory and is often followed by pain
- founded by Zeno
- Most influential philosophy of Hellenistic Age.
- Must follow natural law.
- Logos permeates creation.
- Logos is reason, intelligence, God, fate.
- Align yourself with natural law and you will have virtue.
It was thought that the earth was the center of of the universe. He hypothesized that the earth was round, he calculated the size of Ocean and drew a map, which later Columbas used to find the Americas.
Give example if Hellenistic scutkture
- Nike of Samathrace
- The Dying Gaul
- Laocoon and his sons
- Sleeping Satyr
- Venus de Milo
Describe Hellenistic paintings
Classical Greek sculpture is all about ideals- the human body mostly. Figures are shown in a perfect state- no wrinkles, sags, or imbalances.Hellenistic sculpture is more emotional and imbalanced. More motion.