Identify and discuss the purpose of each of the
3 stages of hemostasis (blood clotting).
i. Causes blood vessels to narrow and constrict to
b. Platelet plugforms
i. Temporary seal
ii. Platelets: cell fragments that aid in clotting.
c. Activate fibrin (protein)
i. Permanent, strong seal on blood vessel (sort of
like a net).
Explain why aspirin therapy is useful for individual who are at a high risk for a heart attack or stroke.
It prevents platelets to collapse together or make blood thinner.
Hemophilia is an X-linked, recessive genetic condition. Explain what step of hemostasis a hemophiliac is unable to complete and why, in the past, bodily injuries were life threatening. How do hemophiliacs currently manage to live with this condition?
People with hemophilia do not have step 3 (fibrin).
Identify the 3 components of a single nucleotide.
Phosphate, Sugar, Nitrogenous Base (A-Adenine, T-Thymine, C-Cytosine, G-Guanine)
Which components never change?
Phosphate and sugar
What is the only variable (changeable) paart of a nucleotide?
Nitrogenous base (ATCG)
Which part of the nucleotide stores your genetic information?
Nitrogenous base (ATCG)
What type of bond holds the double helix together?
Why is hydrogen bond relatively weak compared to other types of chemical bonds?
They are anti-parallel.
How many bonds are there between adenine & thymine?
How many bonds are there between cytosine & guanine?
What is the process of semi-conservative?
Taking an old DNA strand to replicate a new DNA strand.
What is the role of DNA polymerase?
Builds new DNA strands.
What is the role of helicase?
Un-winds DNA or separates DNA strands.
What is the role of topoisomerase?
Re-winds 2 DNA strand to form a double helix.
When is DNA mismatch repaird used?
When DNA are mismatched and is used during replication. The error rate is 1 in 10,000 bases. DNA mismatched is like proofreading.
When is DNA excision repaired used?
It is used for large DNA structure repair. Nuclease cuts/removes the damage DNA, then the DNAP fills in the gap, and the DNA ligase connects the DNA strands.
What is UVA radiation and their effects?
Aging rays that causes brown spots and wrinkles.
What is UVB radiation and their effects?
Burning rays that causes sun burns.
Causes, symptoms, and management options for individuals with Xeroderma pigmentosum
Caused by recessive genetic disorder, the symptom is super sensitive to sunlight, and there is no cure for this because color pigment cannot be corrected.
What is the function of transcription and where in the cell does it occur?
It is used to determine the mRNA sequence from the DNA strand and occurs in the nucleus.
What is the role of RNA polymerase in transcription?
RNA polymerase makes mRNA
What is the function of translation and where in teh cell does it occur?
It is used to determine the amino acid sequence of the protein from the mRNA strand. It occurs in the cytoplasm to bind ribosomes.
What is codon and what does it code for?
Uses genetic code table to determine the amino acide sequence of the protein.
Memorize that the term transcribe and transcription refer to copying the info on DNA into mRNA.
Memorize that the term translate and translation refer to figuring out the amino acid sequence of the protein the cell is trying to make
Replicate the following sequence: TAG-GGA-ATG-GGA
Transcribe the following sequence:
Function of proto-oncogenes.
When "ON," it stimulates cell division.
Function of tumor-suppressor genes
When "ON," it slows/prevents cell division.
What happens to the cell when a proto-oncogene mutates and becomes an oncogene? How many proto-oncogenes are needed to cause a tumor formation?
When it becomes an oncogene, it becomes a cancer, an uncontrollable cell division which leads to tumors.
What happens to the cell when a tumor-suppressor gene mutates? How many tumor-suppressor gene mutations are needed to cause tumor formation?
The tumor-suppressor gene turns off, which becomes an uncontrollable cell division.
What is inherited cancer?
Cancer that is passed down from family generations.
What is sporadic cancer?
Causes 95% of cancer
What are some things to look out for or pay attention to if you think a cancer is inherited?
Pay attention to family members who have cancer if you think a cancer is inherited.
What is de-differentiate?
Cannot change to another cell; lose specialization.
What is lacks contact inhibition?
Stop/prevents growing. For example, a room is 5 sq.ft., then the cell stops when the room is filled.
What is metastatic (metastasis)?
Invasion in other tissues (malignant tumors).
What is angiogenic (angiogenesis)?
Blood vessels are attracted to the tumor and grows into it, which feeds nutrients to the tumor.
What is the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor? Which one is correctly termed “cancer”?
Benign tumors only grow in 1 location so it is easy to get rid of, while malignant tumors spreads and growat other location. Malignant tumors are correctly termed as “cancer.”
What is the fucntion of the 1st line of defense?
A non-specific, external defense that kills any type of pathogens.
What is the function of the 2nd line of defense?
A non-specific, internal defense that kills any type of pathogens.
What is the function of the 3rd line of defense?
A specific, internal defense that kills specific targets. Takes 2-5 days to activate.
What are the components of the 1st line of defense?
Physical barrier: skin
Chemical barriers: mucus, lysozymes, acidic secretions
What is the function of mucus?
(H2O + mucin = mucus)
What is the function of lysozymes?
Anti-bacterial protien that targets bacteria. For example, adds lysozymes in tears to protect eyes, saliva to protect you from the food you eat, and sweat from the gym.
What are the lympathic system organs?
Tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen, lymph vessels, bone marrow, appendix.
What is the function of tonsils?
Function of lymph nodes.
Stores WBCs to kill pathogens.
Function of thymus
Where T cells mature and develop.
Function of spleen
Sponge-like texture that cleans out germs from blood flowing through it.
Function of lymph vessels
circulates lymph, which stores WBCs.
Function of bone marrow
Produces all blood cells like RBCs, WBCs, platelets.
Function of appendix
What are the components of the 2nd line of defense?
Phagocytic WBCs, interferons, NK cells
What are the components of the phagocytic WBCs?
Neutrophils, eosinophil, and macrophages.
Function of neutrophils
A toxin that is stored in the vesicle of a WBCs that gets released to kill pathogens and itself.
Function of eosinophil
targets and kills parasitic worms.
Function of macrophages
Large enough to gobble up a small bacteria or a large bacteria and kills it.
Function of interferons
A warning system against viruses. Interferon is a protein that the body releases. It cannot kill virues because they are non-living. They bind with healthy cell and tells the body that there is a virus attacks and puts up a shield to protect them from viruses.
Function of Natural Killer (NK) cells
Goes after your infected/diseases body cells like cancer cells.
Perforin is a toxin that the NK cells shoot out to kill the bad cells.
Components of the 3rd line of defense.
B cells & antibody production, helper T cell, cytotoxic T cells
Function of B cells and antibody production
B cells binds to target and produces antibodies, which neutralizes/disables the pathogens and attract macrophages.
B cells can make memory B cells, which is made during the first time they are exposed to the pathogens and produces 3x more antibodies for future attaks.
Helper T cells as coordinators of the 3rd line of defense
Activates B cells and cytotoxic T cells.
Function of cytotoxic T cells
Release perforin to target specific infected cells.
What is the specific target of the HIV virus? Why is an active HIV infection devastating to the immune system? What is the difference between being HIV positive and having AIDS?
HIV virus targets helper T cell. If HIV is not treated, then no helper T cell means no B cell or cytotoxic T cells. HIV leads to AIDs.