Loren Bio 1

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Loren Bio 1
2012-04-17 01:08:21
Loren Bio

Loren bio 1 (basis of life)
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  1. heterotrophs
    organisms that depend on outside sources for food.
  2. Anaerobic respiratory processes
    convert nutrients into energy without air
  3. Autotrophs
    they feed themselves (use solar energy to make the energy)
  4. Autotrophic anaerobes
    feed themselves without oxygen (chemosynthetic bacteria)
  5. Autotrophic aerobes
    feed themselves WITH oxygen (green plants and photoplankton)
  6. Heterotrophic anaerobes
    Need to be fed...don't use oxygen (yeasts)
  7. Heterotrophic aerobes
    Need to be fed...use oxygen (humans, worms, amoebas)
  8. Organic compounds
    No carbon....salts, HCl etc etc
  9. Organic Compounds
    made by living systems and contain carbon (include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
  10. Protoplasm
    the colorless stuff comprising the living part of a cell....cytoplasm, nucleus etc
  11. Cell theory
    • 1. all living things have cells
    • 2. The cell is the basic functional unit of life
    • 3. Cells arise only from pre-existing cells
    • 4. Cells carry genetic info in the form of DNA.
  12. Resolution
    the differentiation of two closely situated objects
  13. Example of Prokaryotes
  14. Example of eukaryotes
    Protists, fungi, plants, animals
  15. Nucleus
    • controls activities of the cell...including cell division
    • surrounded by nuclear membrane
    • contains DNA
    • Contains Nucleolus (with ribosomal RNA synthesis)
  16. Ribosome
    Sites of protein production and synthesized by the nucleolus.
  17. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • it's a network of membrane enclosed spaces
    • transports materials (especially secretable materials)
  18. Golgi apparatus
    it receives vesicles from the smooth ER, modifies it, repackages it into vesicles and distributes it to the cell surface by exocytosis
  19. Mitochondria
    • the site of aerobic respiration within the cell
    • supplier of energy
  20. Cytoplasm
    • the liquid part of the cell
    • Cyclosis (the way stuff moves in the cell)
  21. Vacuole
    membrane bound sacs involved in the transport and storage of materials that are ingested, secreted, processed, or digested by the cell.
  22. Centrioles
    • a specialized microtubule that's involved in spindle organization during cell division.
    • it's in the "centrosome"
    • plants don't have them
  23. Lysosome
    membrane bound contains hydrolytic enzymes used in digestion in the cells
  24. Cytoskeleton
    • it's composed of microtubules and microfilaments
    • gives mechanical support, shape, and function
  25. Simple diffusion
    the net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradients (from high to low)
  26. Osmosis
    the diffusion of water from low solute concentration to high concentration (to dilute the solute)
  27. Hypertonic
    there's more solute compared to the other one
  28. Hypotonic
    there's less solute compared to the other one.
  29. Isotonic solution
    the solute concentration is the same on both sides
  30. Facilitated diffusion
    net movement of particles through special channels or carrier proteins. No energy required.
  31. Active transport
    net movement of dissolved particles against concentration (requires energy and transport proteins)
  32. Brownian movement
    the movement of particles due to kinetic energy which spreads small suspended particles throughout the cytoplasm of the cell.
  33. Ways to move around in the cell
    • 1. Brownian movement
    • 2. Cyclosis or streaming
    • 3. Endoplasmic reticulum (it has channels through the cytoplasm)
  34. Enzymes
    • lower activation energy
    • increase the reaction rate
    • doesn't affect the overall delta G
    • isn't changed or consumed in reaction
  35. Are enzymes proteins?
  36. Substrate
    The molecule that the enzyme reacts with
  37. The active site
    Where the substrate and the enzyme bind
  38. Are enzymes reactions reversible?
  39. Reaction rate depends on three things....
    • 1. Temperature
    • 2. pH
    • 3. Concentration of enzyme and substrate
  40. Do enzymes control hydrolysis?
  41. Do enzymes help with synthesis?
  42. What are cofactors?
    a nonprotein molecule that helps make certain enzymes active
  43. What is photosynthesis
    the converting of the sun's energy into chemical energy of bonds like glucose
  44. What is respiration?
    The conversion of the chemical energy in bonds into usable energy for the cells
  45. What bond is the most energy rich bond?
    C-H bond
  46. What is an oxidation reaction?
    the removal of high energy H
  47. What is reduction?
    is energy released or gained by reduction?
    • the acceptance of the hydrogen atom (by oxygen in the final step)
    • Energy is released by reduction (to make ATP)
  48. What's GLYCOLYSIS
    • oxidizes glucose to two molecules of PYRUVATE
    • makes two ATP
    • makes 2 NADH
    • (most of the energy is yet to be released)
  49. How many ATP does fermentation produce?
    2 per glucose
  50. What is Fermentation?
    • when pyruvate is reduced to NAD+
    • no oxygen present
  51. How many ATP does cellular respiration give?
  52. Three parts of cellular respiration?
    • 1. Pyruvate decarboxylation
    • 2. Citric Acid Cycle (krebs cycle)
    • 3. Electron Transport Chain
  53. What's the pyruvate decarboxylation?
    the pyruvate enters the mitochondrial matrix where it is decarboxylated (loses CO2) and it's transferred to make a acetyl CoA
  54. What's the citric acid cycle?
    • Also the krebs cycle.
    • The 2 carbon acetyl combines with a 4 carbon (oxaloacetate)
    • Through a series of reactions 2 CO2 are released and the 4 carbon thing is regenerated.
    • NADH and FADH2 are taken to electron transport chain
  55. Electron Transport chain
    • It's located on the inner mitochondrial membrane
    • energy is transferred from NADH/FADH2 to oxygen (this helps make ATP)
  56. What yields the greatest number of ATP per gram?
  57. Summary of Calvin Cycle
    6 co2 eventually form 1 glucoe.....6 Carbon dioxide and 6 RBP (5 carbon molecules) combine and then are converted to one molecule of glucose and recycled to 6 rbp's