Loren Bio 1
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organisms that depend on outside sources for food.
Anaerobic respiratory processes
convert nutrients into energy without air
they feed themselves (use solar energy to make the energy)
feed themselves without oxygen (chemosynthetic bacteria)
feed themselves WITH oxygen (green plants and photoplankton)
Need to be fed...don't use oxygen (yeasts)
Need to be fed...use oxygen (humans, worms, amoebas)
No carbon....salts, HCl etc etc
made by living systems and contain carbon (include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
the colorless stuff comprising the living part of a cell....cytoplasm, nucleus etc
- 1. all living things have cells
- 2. The cell is the basic functional unit of life
- 3. Cells arise only from pre-existing cells
- 4. Cells carry genetic info in the form of DNA.
the differentiation of two closely situated objects
Example of Prokaryotes
Example of eukaryotes
Protists, fungi, plants, animals
- controls activities of the cell...including cell division
- surrounded by nuclear membrane
- contains DNA
- Contains Nucleolus (with ribosomal RNA synthesis)
Sites of protein production and synthesized by the nucleolus.
- it's a network of membrane enclosed spaces
- transports materials (especially secretable materials)
it receives vesicles from the smooth ER, modifies it, repackages it into vesicles and distributes it to the cell surface by exocytosis
- the site of aerobic respiration within the cell
- supplier of energy
- the liquid part of the cell
- Cyclosis (the way stuff moves in the cell)
membrane bound sacs involved in the transport and storage of materials that are ingested, secreted, processed, or digested by the cell.
- a specialized microtubule that's involved in spindle organization during cell division.
- it's in the "centrosome"
- plants don't have them
membrane bound contains hydrolytic enzymes used in digestion in the cells
- it's composed of microtubules and microfilaments
- gives mechanical support, shape, and function
the net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradients (from high to low)
the diffusion of water from low solute concentration to high concentration (to dilute the solute)
there's more solute compared to the other one
there's less solute compared to the other one.
the solute concentration is the same on both sides
net movement of particles through special channels or carrier proteins. No energy required.
net movement of dissolved particles against concentration (requires energy and transport proteins)
the movement of particles due to kinetic energy which spreads small suspended particles throughout the cytoplasm of the cell.
Ways to move around in the cell
- 1. Brownian movement
- 2. Cyclosis or streaming
- 3. Endoplasmic reticulum (it has channels through the cytoplasm)
- lower activation energy
- increase the reaction rate
- doesn't affect the overall delta G
- isn't changed or consumed in reaction
Are enzymes proteins?
The molecule that the enzyme reacts with
The active site
Where the substrate and the enzyme bind
Are enzymes reactions reversible?
Reaction rate depends on three things....
- 1. Temperature
- 2. pH
- 3. Concentration of enzyme and substrate
Do enzymes control hydrolysis?
Do enzymes help with synthesis?
What are cofactors?
a nonprotein molecule that helps make certain enzymes active
What is photosynthesis
the converting of the sun's energy into chemical energy of bonds like glucose
What is respiration?
The conversion of the chemical energy in bonds into usable energy for the cells
What bond is the most energy rich bond?
What is an oxidation reaction?
the removal of high energy H
What is reduction?
is energy released or gained by reduction?
- the acceptance of the hydrogen atom (by oxygen in the final step)
- Energy is released by reduction (to make ATP)
- oxidizes glucose to two molecules of PYRUVATE
- makes two ATP
- makes 2 NADH
- (most of the energy is yet to be released)
How many ATP does fermentation produce?
2 per glucose
What is Fermentation?
- when pyruvate is reduced to NAD+
- no oxygen present
How many ATP does cellular respiration give?
Three parts of cellular respiration?
- 1. Pyruvate decarboxylation
- 2. Citric Acid Cycle (krebs cycle)
- 3. Electron Transport Chain
What's the pyruvate decarboxylation?
the pyruvate enters the mitochondrial matrix where it is decarboxylated (loses CO2) and it's transferred to make a acetyl CoA
What's the citric acid cycle?
- Also the krebs cycle.
- The 2 carbon acetyl combines with a 4 carbon (oxaloacetate)
- Through a series of reactions 2 CO2 are released and the 4 carbon thing is regenerated.
- NADH and FADH2 are taken to electron transport chain
Electron Transport chain
- It's located on the inner mitochondrial membrane
- energy is transferred from NADH/FADH2 to oxygen (this helps make ATP)
What yields the greatest number of ATP per gram?
Summary of Calvin Cycle
6 co2 eventually form 1 glucoe.....6 Carbon dioxide and 6 RBP (5 carbon molecules) combine and then are converted to one molecule of glucose and recycled to 6 rbp's
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