Loren bio 2

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thinkrussia
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148086
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Loren bio 2
Updated:
2012-04-18 14:00:07
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Loren bio
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Loren bio 2 "reproduction"
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  1. Mitosis
    • the division and distribution of the cell's DNA to its two daughter cells
    • each cell gets a complete copy of the original genome
  2. What is Karyokinesis?
    the division of the nucleus
  3. What is cytokinesis?
    the division of the cell
  4. Interphase
    • 90% of cells life is interphase
    • Chromosomes are duplicated
    • chromosomes are loose (chromatin)
  5. What's the centromere?
    the "waist" spot where the chromatids are held together.
  6. Prophase
    • the chromosomes condense
    • the centriole separate and move to opposite ends
    • the spindle forms
  7. Metaphase
    • spindle attaches to a chromatid
    • they align at the metaphase plate
  8. Anaphase
    The chromatid sister's separate to opposite ends
  9. Telophase
    • Spindles disappear
    • nuclear membrane forms around each chromosomes
    • chromosomes uncoil
  10. I Plan Marriage At The Church
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  11. Do plants have centrioles?
    No, they form a cell plate
  12. Meiosis
    • the process by which sex cells are produced
    • it halves the number of chromosomes
  13. Gonads
    • the gametes are produced in the gonads
    • specialized organs
  14. Female gonads are called....

    They produce
    ovaries

    Oocytes (eggs)
  15. Hermaphrodites
    contain functional male and female gonads (hydra and earthworm)
  16. Spermatogenesis
    • the sperm production
    • occurs in the seminiferous tubules
  17. Oogenesis
    • the production of female gametes (eggs)
    • occurs in the ovaries
  18. Fertilization
    the union of the egg and sperm nuclei to form a zygote (diploid number of chromosomes)
  19. The pathway of Sperm....
    • SEVEn UP
    • (seminiferous tubules)
    • (Epididymis)
    • (Vas deferens)
    • (Ejaculatory duct)
    • (nothing)
    • (Urethra)
    • (Penis)
  20. The testes produce what two things?
    • 1. testosterone (for secondary male characteristics)
    • 2. Sperm
  21. What cell produces estrogen?
    follicle cells
  22. What two things do follicle cells do?
    • 1. produce estrogen
    • 2. contains, nourishes the ovum (egg cell)
  23. Where does the fetus develop?
    in the uterus
  24. True/False
    All the eggs that a female will ovulate during her lifetime are already present in the ovaries
    True
  25. What regulates secretion of estrogens and progesterone?
    LH and FSH
  26. What do estrogens do?
    • they are the steroid necessary for normal female maturation. female sexual characteristics
    • thicken the endometrium (uterine wall)
  27. What does progesterone do?
    progesterone stimulates the development and maintenance of the endometrial wall in preparation for the fetus
  28. Four phases of the menstrual cycle
    • 1. follicular phase
    • 2. Ovulation
    • 3. Luteal phase
    • 4. menstruation
  29. Follicular Phase
    FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) promotes development of the follicle. It grows and begins secreting estrogen
  30. Ovulation
    • midway through the cycle
    • mature ovarian follicles burst and release ovum
    • caused by a surge in LH
  31. Luteal phase
    LH (luteinizing hormone) induces the ruptured follicle to develop into the corpus luteum (it secretes estrogen and progesterone)
  32. Menstruation
    if ovum isn't fertilized the corpus luteum dies (the drop in estrogen/progesterone causes the endometrium (membrane with lots of blood) to slough off
  33. Asexual reproduction
    • no fertilization takes place.
    • genetic carbon copies
  34. Fission
    • asexual reproduction
    • used in prokaryotes
    • the cell just divides down the center.
  35. Budding
    • the replication of the nucleus followed by unequal cytokinesis
    • yeast and hydra
  36. Regeneration
    • like starfish growing an arm, or a salamander growing a tail
    • needs the central disk in the limb
    • occurs by mitosis
  37. Parthogenesis
    • the development of an unfertilized egg innto an adult
    • male bees develop this way. not fertilized
  38. Sexual reproduction in plants
    • alternate between diploid sporophyte to haploid gametophyte
    • evolution trends toward dominance of the sporophyte generation
  39. Gametophyte generations
    • haploid gametophyte produces gamets (1n) by mitosis.
    • they join and fertilize together (sexual reproduction)
  40. Sporophyte generation (2n)
    • diploid (2n)
    • meiosis goes to 1n, and then to gametophyte (1n)
    • reproduces asexually

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