Music: Romantic Era

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  1. Romantic Period Dates
  2. Traits of the Romantic Period
    • subjective (not objective) emotion: your personal and unique emotion instead of just depicting a universal emotion. goal is to reproduce a personal emotion of the composer and hope that someone relates
    • fantasy becomes important, world of dreams: dreams are taken more seriously; some work was influence by opium…etc
    • chivalry and romance: about big, heroic emotions,
    • nothing petty or small
    • love of nature: really began with Beethoven
  3. Musical Traits of the Romantic Period
    (style, expressive aims, nationalism, exocticism)
    • individuality of style: each composer had a more distinct style that you can tell apart
    • expressive aims: they wanted to express emotions/ideas
    • nationalism: bringing in the music of one’s own country/region; pride of your own region
    • exoticism: there was also a love of things exotic/far away
  4. Program Music vs. Absolute Music
    • program music: instrumental music that depicts a story/poem/idea/scene; Shakespeare: his plays first became popular when they were translated into German, etc. and then came back to England; Goethe: spent 60 years on the play Faust. ex: Tchaikovski: Romeo and Juliet Overture Fantasy
    • absolute music: instrumental music that does not depict a story/poem/idea/scene (ex: Piano Concerto in C Major)
  5. Musical Traits
    • greater range: emphasis on more extremes
    • tone color: extremes of timbre
    • harmony: richer more surprising and more dissonant harmony. chromatic: goes outside of the scales
  6. Musical Traits: Dynamics
    • dynamics: more extreme dynamics (ppp or fff)
    • pitch: hits highest high notes and lowest low notes. tempo: extremely fast, etc.
    • rubato: (“tempo rubato”): means that you go faster or slower depending on emotional content (rubato literally means rob); invented by Chopin
    • Nicolo Pagannini (toured in 1830’s): he was a violinist who played so fast that some people thought that he was possessed by the devil
    • Franz Liszt (toured 1830’s-1840’s): virtuoso of piano
  7. Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
    • art song: a piece for a solo singer w/ piano
    • accompaniment (piano is an equal partner to the voice)
    • German Lied (lied=song). Erlonig (the Erkling): ballad in through composed form: the composer makes it up as he goes along, there was not conceived musical idea or form. text by Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
    • Die Forelle (the Trout) p. 269; melody used as a basis for theme and variations in chamber work; “trout quartet”
    • died sat 31 from syphilis and was basically unknown at the time he died
  8. Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)
    • *Mendelssohn Bartholdy (the Christian surname his family took on)
    • *Moses Mendelssohn: his grandfather: he was a great Jewish scholar
    • *came from a very wealthy family; they would hire string orchestras to play his music
    • *Violin Concerto in e minor. I. Allegro molto ed appassionata p. 288
    • *happily married, had children
  9. Robert Schumann (1819-1856)
    • *son of a bookseller; he loved books; his music usually depicts a story/idea etc
    • *began as a pianist; tried to strengthen his 4th finger but damaged it instead, so he composed
    • *he loved to write so he became the fist real music critic and wrote and edited for Neve Zeitschrift fur Musik (New Journal for Music)
    • *he wrote about Schubert’s music after he died, which made him famous
    • *Clara Wieck: child prodigy on piano; his piano
    • teacher’s daughter
    • *Carnaval: one character after another depicted in music, which Clara played (1835). “Chiarina”; “Chopin”
    • *Clara and Schumann fell in love and her dad tried to stop them from getting married
    • *he became schizophrenic and died in an asylum (he had 8 children)
  10. Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)
    • *most of his work was for piano
    • *born in Poland; Polish mother and French father
    • *moved to Paris at 21, which was an emerging music capital
    • *George Sand: (fake name) of the woman who he fell
    • in love with
    • *nocturnes: piece w/ a night time atmosphere. Nocturne
    • in Eflat Major p. 279
    • *etudes: a “study” piece to help a performer overcome a
    • technical difficulty. Etude in c minor (“Revolutionary”) p. 281
  11. Program Music
    (4 types)
    • 1. program symphony: has multiple movements (usually 4 but sometimes 5). ex: Berlioz: “Fantasy Symphony”: 1830
    • 2. concert overture: in one movement; sonata form; it is played at the beginning of a play before the curtain goes up. ex: Mendelssohn, Overture to A Midsummer Nights Dream: 1826. this is the greatest
    • composition written by a 17 year old. ex: Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet Overture Fantasy: 1869
    • 3. symphonic poem: 1 movement; free form; after 1860 it becomes the predominant kind of program music. created by Franz Liszt, a piano virtuoso. ex: Liszt: Les Preludes: 1854. “poem” meaning freedom, it could be based on anything, not just a traditional poem. also
    • called a “tone poem”
    • 4. incidental music: goes along with incidents in a drama. ex: Mendelssohn: A Midsummer Night’s Dream Incidental Music 1843. this has become the wedding march: it was first written for the wedding in the play
  12. Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
    • *Harriet Smithson: an actress that he liked
    • *his parents wanted him to go into medicine but he couldn’t handle it and didn’t like it, so he started composing
    • *he won the “Prix de Rome” which was the biggest composing award, so it took him to Rome to study music and his girlfriend at the time got engaged while he was gone to a piano manufacturer and Berlioz is furious. he makes a plan to go back to Paris to kill his ex-girlfriend, her mother (who encouraged her), and himself, but when he lost his luggage and didn’t make it all the way back to Paris, he decides not to go through with his plan and goes back to Rome
    • *Symphonie Fantastique: 1830. idée fixe: a melody based on Harriet Smithson that appears in all of the movements of the symphony
  13. Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
    • *young and handsome
    • *transcendental etudes for piano: helped w/ technical
    • difficulties
    • *Weimar: taught for free. symphonic
    • poems and the b minor piano sonata
    • *Rome: took holy orders in church
  14. Peter Ilych Tchaikovsky
    • *known for ballets: Nutcracker, Swan Lake, Sleeping
    • Beauty
    • *Romeo and Juliet Overture Fantasy: p. 308
    • *nationalism in music: predominates
    • in nations previously lacking a long art music tradition. adds nationalistic characteristics to the prevailing style of romanticism. characteristics: 1. rhythmic from regional dances. 2. history of the region. 3. melodic shapes from folk tunes
    • *Russian school: Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) (“father
    • of Russian…?”). the Russian Five: 1. Mily Blakirev (leader and teacher of Stravinsky) 2. Cesar Cui 3. Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881) in particular: Pictures
    • at an Exhibition: original version for piano. orchestrated by Maurice Ravel 4. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov 5. Alexander Borodin
  15. Czech Composers
    • Bediich Simetana: (1824-1884). Ma Vlast. *“The Moldav” p. 312
    • Antonin Dvorak: (1841-1904). “New World” symphony (it is nationalistic on all 3 account characteristics)
  16. Italian Opera
    • GiuseppeVerdi (1813-1901): studied in Busseto, Italy and Milan. Rigoletto, la Traviata. Otello (based on Shakespeare’s Othello)
    • Giacomo Puccinni: (1858-1924). Verismo opera: Tosca. La Boheme: characters Roldolfo
Card Set
Music: Romantic Era
romantic era classical music
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