Card Set Information
• Ptosis: drooping eyelid
Nystagmus: oscillating movement of eyeball
Amsler grid - often
used for patients with macular problems, such as macular degeneration. It
consists of a geometric grid of identical squares with a central fixation
point. The grid should be viewed by the patient wearing normal reading glasses.
Each eye is tested separately. The patient is instructed to stare at the
central fixation spot on the grid and report any distortion in the squares of
the grid itself.
For patients with macular
problems, some of the squares may look faded, or the lines may be wavy.
Ultrasonography - Ultrasonography is a very
valuable diagnostic technique, especially when the view of the retina is
obscured by opaque media such as cataract or hemorrhage.
Ultrasonography can be used to identify orbital tumors,
retinal detachment, and changes in tissue composition.
Fluorescein - Fluorescein
angiography evaluates clinically significant macular edema, documents macular
capillary nonperfusion, and identifies retinal and choroidal neovascularization
(growth of abnormal new blood vessels) in age-related macular degeneration. It
is an invasive procedure in which fluorescein dye is
injected, usually into an antecubital vein. Within 10 to 15 seconds, this dye
can be seen coursing through the retinal vessels. Over a 10-minute period,
se-rial black-and-white photographs are taken of the retinal vasculature. The
dye may impart a gold tone to the skin of some patients, and urine may turn
deep yellow or orange. This discoloration usually disappears in 24 hours
indocyanine green angiography
indocyanine green angiography - used to evaluate
abnormalities in the choroidal vasculature, conditions often seen in macular degeneration.
Indocyanine green dye is injected intravenously (IV), and multiple images are
captured using digital videoangiography over a period of 30 seconds to 20
• Tonometry - Measures intraocular
Gonioscopy - Visualizes the angle of the anterior chamber
Scotomas: blind areas in the visual field
: normal vision
distortion due to irregularity of the cornea
• Eyeball Shape
Determines Visual Acuity in Refractive
A group of
ocular conditions in which damage to the optic nerve is related to increased intraocular
pressure (IOP) caused by congestion of the aqueous humor
leading cause of blindness in adults in the U.S.; incidence increases with age
Risk factors: for Glaucoma
Family history of glaucoma
use of topical or systemic corticosteroids
normal intraocular pressure
between 10mm Hg and 21mm Hg