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Edward's survival in the first 5 years (1461-5) depended upon what?
- Crushing the Lancastrian insurrections in the north. (and also Wales) - for this, Edward was greatly indebted to Neville family.
- Neutralising Margaret's foreign support.
When was Warwick made warden of both the eastern and western Marches?
Outline how the Nevilles were important in crushing the insurrections in the north in the early stages of Edward's reign.
Warwick appointed warden of both the eastern and the western Marches in July, where he was more than ably assisted by the best military leader in family, brother John, Lord Montagu.
What Northumbrian castles did Warwick take in the early parts of Edward's reign? When? And what did Edward to on both occasions?
- Castles of Alnwick, Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh.
- In 1461 and again in 1462.
- On both occasions, Edward, as part of his policy of conciliation, restored castles to their Lancastrian lords.
Where did Herbert crush Lancastrian rebellions, and which castle did he win when?
- Won Pembroke Castle in 1461.
What did Margaret of Anjou try to do in 1462?
Tries to invade from the north with a small army but was quickly defeated.
Who were the main die-hard/staunch/intractable Lancastrain lords who were mainly in the north?
- Duke of Somerset
- Percies (Sir Ralph Percy)
- Duke of Exeter
- (may be more, this is from power point first bit)
When did Edward make truces with Scotland and France and why was this a wise decision?
- Because MofA had successfully sought support form Scotland and France before.
- The Lancastrian relied heavily on foreign support and effectively "internationalised" the struggle.
- Here, Edward's diplomacy proved to be more fruitful than his policy of conciliation.
What/when were the 2 battles that Montagu won in the north successfully? What were the results?
- Battle of Hedgeley Moor: Montagu managed to rout a Lancastrian force attempting to disrupt further Yorkist-Scottish negotiations. Sir Ralph Percy killed.
- Battle of Hexam: followed up by defeating the main Lancastrian army.
- Nearly all the remaining Lancastrian nobles were captured. Nevilles showed no mercy. Duke of Somerset was one of the key individuals who were executed.
What was Edward's main policy towards treating oppositions and especially Lancastrians?
He followed a policy of conciliation with Lancastrian supporters in the hopes to win them over, rather than attempting to crush them or punish them severely.
Give examples of how Edward was overconfident in dealing with the Lancastrians and how this policy of conciliation did not work.
- Sir Ralph Percy: pardoned and restored to most of his land and castles after Towton in 1461. He rebelled against Edward in 1462 again.
- Duke of Somerset: also pardoned after 1461, had his castles restored to him and was even shown great friendship by king (eg. access to royal chamber - E relying on charm & personality) - led to the Lancastrian resistance of 1464.
- Also John de Vere of Oxford.
- Edward IV's failure to kill off Henry VI after he captured him in 1465 brought him problems later.
How many Acts of Attainder did Edward pass after Towton 1461? What significance?
- 113 Acts of Attainder
- Very small number, considering the size of the battle (remember, was the largest battle of its time with 50,000 men).
- Should have passes more - not only would this make the Lancastrian opposition weaker, but would also mean more land for Edward to use to gain more political support as patronage.
Edward still used the lands obtained by his Acts of Attainder mostly as patronage in order to gather political support. Give example of the titles he granted to Warwick.
- Warwick made Great Chamberlain
- Warden of both the eastern and western Marches (at expense of Percies)
- Chief Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster
- Admiral of England
- Captain of Calais (1461 - 71)
What did Edward grant to Sir William Hastings?
- Extensive estates in the midlands
- Was made king's Chamberlain.
What did Edward grant to Sir William Herbert?
- made Virtual Viceroy (king's deputy) in south Wales.
- Grasping and ambitious Welsh squire who was transformed into a prominent noble with annual income of some 2,400 pounds.
Why was marrying Elizabeth Woodville a political blunder for Edward? What consequences?
- Warwick upset because:
- Edward did not consult him and married secretly
- Warwick wanted alliance with France and felt humiliated as he was negotiating a marriage with the French in total ignorance.
- Woodville's many siblings created competition in the marriage market for Warwick's siblings. They gained advantageous marriages. (eg on next card)
- Elizabeth did not belong to an important noble family, and her former husband was a Lancastrian.
- She as an individual was very ambitious to gain power for her family - made other nobles resent this too and further caused splits in the Yorkist nobility.
- Edward could have extended his power if he had married a woman from a more powerful household.
Give examples of how Edward actively promoted the Woodvilles by advantageous marriages.
- By the end of 1466 - one of Elizabeth's sisters had become the wife of Duke of Buckingham, others married Duke of Kent and Lord Herbert.
- One brother married 65-year-old Duchess of Norfolk
When doe Edward recaptured Henry VI and what happens?
- 1465 - He captures Henry and he is put in The Tower.
- But, Edward fails to kill Henry - he felt overly confident and secure.
- Margaret of Anjou fled to France.
Edward's Foreign Policy (First Reign)
Click to continue.
Who were the 2 rivals who were actively seeking an English alliance?
- Louis XI
- Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy
Who did Warwick want alliance with? But what was the advantages for allying with the other?
- Warwick wanted to ally with France.
- However, allying with Burgundy appealed to
- commercial interests - Burgundy was the country's most important cloth market.
- patriotic sentiments of the people - France was a traditional enemy.
- (Advantage of French alliance would have been to block support for Edward's enemies such as the Lancastrians and the Scots).
How did Edward ally with Burgundy? (2) When?
- 1467 - Commercial treaty with Burgundy
- 1468 - Edward's sister (Margaret of York) married Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy.
What were the main reasons why Warwick was resentful towards Edward in 1469?
- Woodvilles getting more powerful and perhaps a feeling that they were replacing Warwick.
- Felt he was losing power and influence over key decisions.
- There wasn't a French alliance.
- Edward didn't consult Warwick for his marriage decisions - also damaged Warwick's pride.
What small-scale rebellions did Warwick encourage in 1469 when he started rebelling against the king?
- Encouraged rebellions in the north.
- Robin Redesdale in Yorkshire
- Robin of Holderness led another.
- Both were dispersed by Lord Montagu, who was still loyal.
What was the battle in 1469? What happened?
- Battle of Edgecote
- Edward IV (taken by surprise by Warwick's forces) and his forces were defeated.
- Edward IV captured temporarily by George Neville.
What marriage took place in 1469? What did Warwick try to do?
- Marriage between George, Duke of Clarence and Isobel Neville in Calais, even though Edward had condemned this before.
- Warwick persuaded Duke of Clarence (EdIV's younger brother) to join the plot against Edward IV.
- Clarence, being a very greedy and generally unstable character, agreed.
At the Battle of Edgecote, Edward was captured. When was he released? Why?
- 1469 (same year as the battle)
- Because did not have adequate support from the nobility, and did not have the power to win people over to his side.
Give 2 (vital) evidence of how Edward mismanaged patronage.
- Montagu: Defected in 1470 because the earldom of Northumberland was taken away from him and given as patronage to Montagu's old enemy, Henry Percy who was released form prison and restored to this title in 1469, as part of EdIV's policy of conciliation. (Large blow, especially because Montagu was a very skilled military leader).
- Warwick-Herbert feud: fuelled by EdIV's patronage to Herbert of some parts of Wales. - Had started as early as 1461 over lordship of Newport. (Herbert rules southern Wales but greedy Warwick had other designs for Wales).
After Edward was released, what did he do to Warwick and Clarence? What should he have done?
- He pardoned Warwick and Clarence for the treason at Battle of Edgecote.
- Should have and certainly justified to executing both.
- Once again, he was over-reliant on both his personality and his policy of reconciliation.
What did Warwick do after Edward was released and started crushing the remainder of the rebellions?
Warwick fled to France, where he gained the support of Louis XI.
Why were Warwick, Clarence and Margaret able to depose Edward and restore Henry on the throne?
- Louis XI's intervention: he was keen to intervene with English affairs, especially after Edward had allied himself with Louis's enemy, Duke of Burgundy. He brought together Margaret and Warwick and also supplied military aid to the invasion.
- Support of die-hard Lancastrians in England: such as Earl of Oxford (whom, Edward restored in 1461), and from the gentry.
- Lord Montagu defected (because of Edward's mismanagement of patronage).
- Lead to successful readeption of Henry VI and Edward forced to take exile in Burgundy for 6 months.
What other slightly weaker and more long-term reason we can we give for why Edward lost the throne in 1470?
- Previous history of usurpation - Edward IV was himself a usurper, and thus would have seemed reasonable that the usurper can be usurped by his own victim.
- Richard II was usurped in 1399.
- Whilst Henry VI was still alive, Edward was not going to be safe on his throne.
What key weaknesses of Edward's rule can we draw from these reasons why he was usurped in 1470?
- Edward was over-reliant on his charm and personality rather than putting in place proper systems and relying on strategic decisions.
- Too soft on opposition - his policy of conciliation was unsuccessful.
- Inability to see the wider implications of his actions. (eg. mismanagement of patronage with Lord Montagu & Woodville marriage).
ADDITIONAL. How did Edward often resolve the rivalries between Clarence and Gloucester early in his second reign?
- Often in favour of Clarence.
- eg. Richmond, Courtenay estates, position of Great Chamberlain (1471).
- Richard may have felt resentful of this, especially because Clarence had committed treason before.