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what are the names and functions of the heart chambers
- RIGHT ATRIUM- recieves deoxygenated bloof from superior cavity and passes the tricupid av valve to right venterical
- RIGHT VENTERICLE-decieves deoxygenated blood from right atrium and pumps through pulmonary semilunar valve to pulminary trunk
- LEFT ATRIUM-recieves oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins and passes the bicuspid av valve to left venterical
- LEFT VENTRICLE-recieves oxygenated blood from left atrium and pumps through aortic semilunar valve to the aorta
what are the names and functions of the heart valves
- TRICUSPID VALVE- av valve between right atrium and right ventericle.
- BICUSPID VALVE- av valve between left atrium and left ventericle
what are the events of the cardiac cycle
blood flows from the atria into the ventricles during ventricular diastole then blood is pumped from the ventricles during ventericular systole
what produces heart sounds
sounds produced by heart valves closing
trace a drop of blood as it flows through the heart, pulmonary and systemic circuits
blood flows from left and right atria in to ventricles. right venterical pumps blood to pulmonary trunk which supplys the lungs blood. left venterical pumps blood into the aorta. aorta supplys blood to all the body except lungs.
what composes the cardiac conduction system
- the sinotrial node is the pace maker
- the atriobentricular node, the av bundle, and the purkinje fibers make up the cardiac conduction system
what events produce the waves of an electrocardiogram
p waves result from depolarization of the atria. the qrs wave results from the depolarzation of the ventricles. the t wave results from the repolarization of the ventericles.
how is heart rate regulated
the medulla oblongata and stroke volume and heart rate. also is effected by age sex and physical condition.
compair the structure and function of arteries,capillaries, and veins
- arteries- carry blood from heart to capillaries- thick muscular layer for high blood pressure
- Capillaries- enable exchange of material between blood and tissue cells. microscopic vessles single layer of endothelial cells
- veins- return blood from capillaries to heart-thin muscular layer prevents backflow of blood.
how does the exchange of materials occur between blood in capillaries and tissue cells
cell tissues are enveloped in tissue fluid, all materials pass through and diffuse oxygen and nutrients and go into the body cells
how does blood pressure affect the flow of blood through blood vessels
as the blood gets further from the heart the pressure decreases and as it gets closer to the heart it increases
compare systolic and diastolic blood pressure
- systolic is ventricual contraction
- distolic is ventricual relaxation.
how do cardiac output, blood volume, and peripheral resistance affect blood pressure
- cardiac output-an increase or decrease in cadiac output causes compairable changes in pressure
- blood volume-if blood is lost pressure will decrease if body retains to much pressure will increase
- peripheral resistance-as arterioles constrict pressure increases
what is the arterial pathway of blood from the left ventricle to the dorsal surface of the foot
internal iliac artery to the external iliac artery, to the femoral artery, to the deep femoral artery, to the popliteal artery, to the anterior tibial artery, to the posterior artery.
what is the venous pathway of blood from the posterior portion of the ankle to the right atrium
anterior and posterior tibial veins, to the popliteal vien. small saphenous veins to the femoral vein. to the great saphenous vein to the external iliac vein to the inferior vena cava
what is immunity
resistance to specific desease producing antigens
how is an immune reaction started
by the presence of foreign antigens
why are helper t-cells so important to immunity
they start the immune response by releasing cytokines
what is so serious about aids virus destroying helper t cells
the immune system becomes greatly reduced