Ch13 Social Psychology

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Ch13 Social Psychology
2012-04-17 15:48:40

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  1. Social Psychology
    The study of how ppl think about, influence, and relate to other ppl
  2. Stereotype
    A generalization about a group's characteristics taht does not consider any variations from one individual to another
  3. Attribution Theory
    The view that ppl are motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior
  4. Fundemental Attribution Error
    Observer's overestimation of the importance of internal traits and underestimation of the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actor's behavior
  5. False Consensus Effect
    Observer's overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way they do
  6. Positive Illusions
    Positive views of the self that are not necessariliy rooted in reality
  7. Self-Serving Bias
    The tendency to take credit for our successes and to deny responsibility for our failures
  8. Self-Objectification
    The tendency to see oneself primarily as an object in the eyes of others
  9. Steretype Threat
    An individual's fast-acting, self-fulfilling fear of being judged based on a negative steretype about his or her group
  10. Social Comparison
    The process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to other ppl
  11. Attitudes
    Our feelings, opinions, and beliefs about ppl, objects, and ideas
  12. Cognitive Dissonance
    An individual's psychological disomfort (dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts
  13. Self-Perception Theory
    Bem's theory on how behaviors influence attitudes, stating that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior
  14. Elaboration Likelihood Model
    Theory identifying two ways to persuade: a central route and a peripheral route
  15. Altruism
    Unselfish interest in helping another person
  16. Egoism
    Giving to another person to ensure reprocity; to gain self-esteem; to present oneself as powerful, competent, or caring; or to avoid censure from oneself and others for failing to liive up to society's expectations
  17. Empathy
    A feeling of oneness w the emotional state of another person
  18. Bystander Effect
    The tendency of an individual who observes an emergency to help less when other ppl are present than when the observer is alone
  19. Aggression
    Social behavior wose objective is to harm somone, either physically or verbally
  20. Conformity
    A change in a person's behavior to coincide more closely w a group standard
  21. Informational Social Influence
    The influence other ppl have on us because we want to be right
  22. Normative Social Influence
    The influence others have on us because we want them to like us
  23. Obedienec
    Behavior that complies w the explicit demands of the individual in authority
  24. Deindividuation
    The reduction in persoanl identity and erosion of the sense of persoanl responsibility when one is part of a group
  25. Social Contagion
    Limitative behavior involving the spread of actions, emotions, and ideas.
  26. Social Facilitation
    Improvement in an individual's performance because of the presence of others.
  27. Social Loafing
    Each person's tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort
  28. Risky Shift
    The tendency for a gruop decision to be riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members
  29. Group Polarization Effect
    The solidification and furthur strengthenin gof an individual's position as a consequence of a group discussion or interaction
  30. Groupthink
    The impaired group decision makin that occurs when making the right decsion is less important than maintaining group harmony
  31. Social Identity
    The way we define ourselves in terms of our group membership
  32. Social Identity Theory
    Taifel's theory that our social identities are a crucial part of our self-image and a valuable source of positive feelings about ourselves
  33. Ethnocentrism
    The tendency to favor one's own ehtnic group over other groups
  34. Prejudice
    An unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a particual group
  35. Discrimination
    An unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because the person belongs to that group
  36. Mere Exposure Effect
    The phenomenon that the more we encounter someone or something the more proable it is that we will start likeing the person or thing even if we do not realize we have seen it before
  37. Romantic Love
    Also called passionate love; love w strong components of sexuality and ifatuation, often dominant in early part of a love relationship
  38. Affectionate Love
    Also called companionate love; love that occurs when individuals desire to have another person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person
  39. Social Exchange Theory
    The view of social relaionships as involving an exchange of goods, the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize benefits
  40. Investment Model
    A model of long-term relationships that examines the ways that commitment, investment, and the availability of attractive alternative partners predict satsfaction and stability in relationships